Wound Healing: Inflammation and Tissue Repair

Table of Contents


Inflammation is an important responsibility of the organism that is associated with the activation of the immune system. Irrespective of the type of injury, the mechanics of the healing process is similar and implies inflammation, repairing, and healing (McConnell & Hull, 2020). This paper includes a brief description of physiologic mechanisms, immunologic events, and wound healing process based on the case study involving a foot injury.

Physiologic Mechanism

Acute inflammation can be seen as an immediate response of an organism to injury. In the case in question, Carlton cut his foot, which led to the injured foot’s redness, increased temperature, swollenness, and painfulness. These symptoms are caused by certain physiological mechanisms associated with microcirculation changes (McConnell & Hull, 2020). The injured area becomes red and hot due to the increased flow of blood to the inflamed site.

The accumulation of fluid in the area results in swollenness, and pain occurs because specific chemicals regulating nerve endings are released. When internal organs are injured, some of the symptoms do not occur (McConnell & Hull, 2020). For instance, lung inflammation is not associated with pain unless certain areas are affected due to the presence of nerve endings in this tissue. The temperature of the inflamed internal organs does not increase because the skin is cooler than body temperature.

Immunologic Events

The acute inflammatory response is the reaction of the immune system of the body that reacts to cell injury. When Carlton injured his foot, the fast accumulation of immune cells in the area occurred. The process can be divided into several stages, and it starts with the increased blood flow initiated by vasculature around and within the injured area (Actor, 2019). Vascular permeability enhances significantly as well, and immune cells migrate to the site. Guided by inflammatory molecule gradients, immune cells reach the injured area and phagocytosis starts to degrade microbes or cellular debris if they are present.

Vascular changes take place to ensure sufficient blood flow to the injured site. Immediately after the tissue damage, arteriolar vasoconstriction occurs for a short period of time (several seconds). Arteriolar vasodilation is the next change that results in enhanced blood flow. This process is facilitated by the activation of endothelial cells that form spaces between cells, and vascular permeability increases due to these vascular changes.

Vascular changes are followed by the activation of neutrophils and other immune cells that reach the parenchyma. Several major stages are identified within the scope of this process. When vasodilation takes place, immune cells migrate to the vessel periphery (Actor, 2019). Rolling is the following stage that implies the slowing down of immune cells and their rolling next to vascular walls. Next, when immune cells flow is slowed down, their interaction with endothelial cells increases considerably (Actor, 2019). Immune cells bound to vascular walls squeeze between endothelial cells dissolving the basement membrane with the help of diverse proteases. As mentioned above, leukocytes reach the injured site along chemical mediator gradients that can be secreted by host cells or produced by the cells near the injured area (McConnell & Hull, 2020). When immune cells migrate to the injured area, they phagocytose microbes (if any) and cellular debris.

Wound Healing

Wound healing can be a lasting process, but irrespective of its duration, it can be divided into three stages that include inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling (Bishop et al., 2018). Nutrition plays an important role in healing as the organism receives all the necessary elements for effective regeneration. Vitamins are also critical for sustainable wound healing, so patients should pay specific attention to the products they consume. For example, Vitamins A and C are particularly valuable, although other nutrients are also important.

Vitamin A is essential during the initial stages of inflammation as it is necessary for the delivery of monocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages (Bishop et al., 2018). A deficiency of this vitamin results in distorted collagen synthesis and impaired cross-linking. This element is found in vegetables such as carrots. However, it is necessary to ensure the balanced consumption of this nutrient as it is fat-soluble, and fat is also important for the healing process as it releases energy and saves protein for healing. Therefore, the increased intake of vitamin A is harmful to patients with protein deficiency, liver failure, or renal failure.

Vitamin C is another valuable nutrient that has a favorable effect on the healing process. Although it is important at all stages of wound healing, vitamin C is critical at the stage of remodeling. This component is involved in the stabilization of the collagen triple helix structure. Vitamin C deficiency has a negative impact on collagen synthesis and remodeling (Bishop et al., 2018). The lack of this element can lead to such undesirable effects as wound reopening, which is associated with different adverse outcomes. Vitamin C is obtained from green vegetables, citrus fruits, as well as potatoes.


In conclusion, it is necessary to note that the understanding of physiologic mechanisms, immunologic events, and wound healing process is important for the delivery of high-quality care. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the major peculiarities of different aspects of the process, which is essential for adequate and timely care. It is also necessary to remember that nutrition and lifestyle are important aspects to take into account.


Actor, J. (2019). Introductory Immunology: Basic concepts for interdisciplinary applications (2nd ed.). Academic Press.

Bishop, A., Witts, S., & Martin, T. (2018). The role of nutrition in successful wound healing. Journal of Community Nursing, 32(4), 44–50.

McConnell, T. H., & Hull, K. L. (2020). Human form, human function: Essentials of anatomy & physiology. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Social Work and Human Services
Although it took 2 revisions I am satisfied but I did receive it late because of that.
Customer 452603, March 25th, 2021
The writer was timely and proficient. I had to ask for a revision, but I got it back quickly with no other issues. Would use this essay writing service again
Customer 452441, November 14th, 2021
Came in as promissed. Good paper.
Customer 453027, January 6th, 2022
quick and before due date/time.
Customer 453027, January 29th, 2022
Impressive writing
Customer 452547, February 6th, 2021
Social Sciences
Very fast report with excellent information on the topic. Thank you for your speedy service in such a short time.
Customer 453213, June 15th, 2022
Business Studies
Thank you so much! I had to take my dog to the ER and had no time for the assignment. I really appreciate your help! I can't thank you enough! I really appreciate the work and integrity put into it. Thank you for taking it seriously and not bullshiting the paper.
Customer 452815, July 26th, 2021
English 101
thank you for the excellent work
Customer 452883, October 29th, 2021
Human Resources Management (HRM)
Always great! My son has been in critical health these last few semesters. Many times I have thought he wasn't going to make it and thought about quitting or postponing school until he was healthier but it always happens to be in the middle of the semester. This service has been a lifesaver for my mindset in helping keep my grades up and keep my son alive at the same time. I don't know if I could have made it through this period without it.
Customer 453077, June 6th, 2022
Don't really see any of sources I provided, but elsewise its great, thank you!
Customer 452697, May 8th, 2021
quick, fast and exact!
Customer 453027, May 24th, 2022
Criminal Justice
The paper was not accused of plagiarism and was written very well. I will let you know the grade once it is graded. Thank you
Customer 452671, April 26th, 2021
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp