Treating Aggression in Children and Teenagers

Table of Contents


To treat aggression in children and teenagers, it is possible to apply different types of antipsychotics. In order to address the condition in a 15-year-old healthy male individual, such medication as risperidone can be used (Mauri et al., 2014). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the appropriate dosage, administration, and side effects and focus on the concept of the off-label use of medications.

Administration and Mechanisms of Action

The recommended initial dose is 0.5 mg orally per day. The titration dose is 1 mg per day taken in 24 hours. The maintenance dose for the client is 2 mg per day. Risperidone should be administered with or without food once a day. Possible side effects include agitation, dizziness, constipation, nausea, and dystonia. The mechanism of action depends on the affinity for dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin 5HT2 and 5HT7 receptors (Mauri et al., 2014). There is also the affinity for α1 and α2 and histamine receptors. Risperidone is absorbed rapidly, it is metabolized through 9-hydroxylation in the liver, peak plasma concentrations are observed in an hour, and linear pharmacokinetics is typical. Concerning excretion, risperidone is mainly eliminated via the urine, and the half-life of it is 3 hours.

Side Effects

Potential side effects are anxiety, agitation, drowsiness, akathisia, possible changes in vision, and abdominal pain. The patient should be educated to report any of these conditions to a medical worker. Other adverse reactions are nausea, diarrhea, dystonia, tachycardia, concentration difficulties, sleepiness, and problems with urination (Mauri et al., 2014). To monitor these effects, patients should be informed about the probability of these conditions and contacting the physician when they are observed.

Definition of Off-Label Use of Medications

The off-label use of such a psychotropic medication as risperidone means the prescription of this drug for treating conditions that are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The use of risperidone for managing aggressive behaviors is off-label because the medication is approved only for treating schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism (Carton et al., 2015). Thus, a physician takes full responsibility for prescribing a medication for a non-approved indication referring to available evidence.

Explanation to Parents

To explain the off-label use of risperidone to parents, it is necessary to refer to available evidence from trials on applying this drug for treating aggressive behaviors. A narrow range of medications is approved by the FDA for treating aggression in children and adolescents (Carton et al., 2015). The decision is made depending on evidence regarding the use of psychotropic drugs for managing this condition.

Sound Clinical Decisions and Conclusion

The off-label prescription of medications can be a sound clinical decision when there is clear evidence regarding their positive impact on treated conditions. This practice is typical of psychiatry, especially with reference to treating children and adolescents (Nielsen et al., 2016). Psychiatric classifications can unite spectrums of conditions of a similar clinical nature, and the off-label use of second-generation antipsychotics is possible. There can be no other alternatives available to address certain conditions.


Carton, L., Cottencin, O., Lapeyre-Mestre, M., Geoffroy, P., Favre, J., Simon, N.,… Rolland, B. (2015). Off-label prescribing of antipsychotics in adults, children and elderly individuals: A systematic review of recent prescription trends. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 21(23), 3280-3297.

Mauri, M. C., Paletta, S., Maffini, M., Colasanti, A., Dragogna, F., Di Pace, C., & Altamura, A. C. (2014). Clinical pharmacology of atypical antipsychotics: An update. EXCLI Journal, 13, 1163-1191.

Nielsen, E. S., Hellfritzsch, M., Sørensen, M. J., Rasmussen, H., Thomsen, P. H., & Laursen, T. (2016). Off-label prescribing of psychotropic drugs in a Danish child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 25(1), 25-31.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Customer 452591, March 18th, 2021
English 101
very good paper thank you.
Customer 453083, February 18th, 2022
Don't really see any of sources I provided, but elsewise its great, thank you!
Customer 452697, May 8th, 2021
Health Care
The writer did not follow my choice of topic (Food/Water Insecurity, Hunger, & Poverty), the paper was instead written about Climate Change in Africa. However, the paper was still great and informative. Thank you!
Customer 452777, January 28th, 2022
Thank you
Customer 453087, March 5th, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Great work I would love to continue working with this writer thought out the 11 week course.
Customer 452667, May 30th, 2021
Business Studies
Customer 452985, November 11th, 2021
Looks great and appreciate the help.
Customer 452675, April 26th, 2021
IT, Web
Awesome paper in such a short amount of time. Was in a jam with another service who didn't deliver, but Theresa did the job correctly. I will use her again to do my essays for sure!
Customer 452967, November 27th, 2021
Came in as promissed. Good paper.
Customer 453027, January 6th, 2022
Business Studies
Paper is great. Just only needed the one reference. Thank you
Customer 453139, May 4th, 2022
The writer was timely and proficient. I had to ask for a revision, but I got it back quickly with no other issues. Would use this essay writing service again
Customer 452441, November 14th, 2021
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp