Thoracic Ectopic Kidney with Diaphragmatic Hernia


Ectopic kidney refers to an anomalous location of one of the kidneys. Ectopic kidney appears without any particular relation to age or gender; however, there is a tendency for it to be more frequently present on the left side, affecting the left kidney. This trend is partially explained by the fact that the right diaphragm is protected by the liver against any kind of inner pressure (Gupta 48).

The ectopic kidney can be pelvic (the most common type of the anomaly, which appears once in 3,000 autopsies), ileac, abdominal, or thoracic. The ectopic thoracic kidney is the rarest case with only 5% of all ectopias (which means that there is only one case in every 15,000 autopsies) and only 140 cases described in the world medical literature (4 of which are bilateral). In most cases, the diagnosis was made accidentally with the patients being unaware of the condition up to their mature age (Gupta 48). The paper at hand is going to provide a literature review of four articles on the topic to summarize features characterizing the condition, its causes, and treatment options.

Literature Review: Discussion

According to Murphy et al., exploration of this rare condition is complicated by the fact that all the relevant materials on the topic are case reports that provide no follow-up information, which makes it impossible to form a holistic picture (The authors claim that there were only 13 cases of the intrathoracic kidney reported over 25 years in the pediatric age group.) (970). To obtain the missing data, the researchers collected 5 cases of intrathoracic kidney in children and managed them non-operatively since 1992 (Murphy et al. 970). The results of the study proved that these kidneys functioned normally in spite of the anomaly. Moreover, none of the children had bowel herniation. However, two of them suffered from acute respiratory distress and had to be subjected to diaphragmatic hernia repair, whereas the other three were diagnosed accidentally. The authors conclude that no aggressive surgical approach is required for treating the condition as standard repair and nephropexy are quite effective, which makes non-operative management possible (Murphy et al. 973).

Adam et al. explore a rare case of the acquired form of the condition in a child with nephrotic syndrome, who previously had a congenital diaphragmatic hernia (922). The authors of the study are mostly concerned with the options of treating this rare form of ectopia. They suggest the use of MRI-urography as the most reliable tool for defining anomalous autonomy in small children (even during pregnancy). MRI is especially useful for the pediatric population as it does not emit ionizing radiation. The researchers also conclude that a renogram study can be helpful in identifying the position of the kidney that seems to be absent (Adam et al. 924).

Rouanne et al. agree with other researchers that the anomaly is typically asymptomatic and therefore discovered predominantly in adults (57). The authors investigate the rare case of a 1-year-old child to find out the embryonic background that predetermines the appearance of the pathology. However, they conclude that the causes remain unclear and that the anomaly can appear with equal chances as a result of a delay in the closure of the diaphragm or because of an ascent of the kidney before the closure (Rouanne et al. 59).

Shah et al. dwell upon Bochdalek hernia—a congenital diaphragmatic defect that is often associated with intrathoracic kidney (373). The researchers state that it is often the case that the kidney is confused with a thoracic mass, which brings about a series of redundant examinations and surgical interventions. They believe that the major task is to avoid such mistakes. This means that proper diagnosis makes it much easier to address the condition (Shah et al. 375).

Works Cited

Adam, Ahmed, Mariza De Villiers, and Gertruida Van Biljon. “Quest for the Missing Kidney in the “Treasure Chest”: Report of a Thoracic Kidney in a Child with Recurrent Diaphragmatic Hernia.” Urology, vol. 82, no. 4, 2013, pp. 922-924.

Gupta, Amit, et al. “Ectopic Intrathoracic Kidney: A Case Report and Literature Review.” Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology, vol. 15, no. 1, 2013, pp. 48-50.

Murphy, James J., Gabriel Altit, and Siham Zerhouni. “The Intrathoracic Kidney: Should we Fix it?.” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 47, no. 5, 2012, pp. 970-973.

Rouanne, M., et al. “A Rare Case of Ectopic Intrathoracic Kidney in a 1-Year-Old Child.” Urology, vol. 76, no. 1, 2010, pp. 57-59.

Shah, Arti D., et al. “Bochdalek Hernia with Intrathoracic Kidney.” Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society, vol. 29, no. 4, 2012, 373-375.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Criminal Justice
This has been the greatest help while I am recovering from an illness. Thank your team so much.
Customer 452671, May 2nd, 2021
It was a very long paper, but she followed all the instructions, and she even finished the paper 5 days before the due date. Will write an essay with her again, thanks!
Customer 452967, November 27th, 2021
English 101
great summery in terms of the time given. it lacks a bit of clarity but otherwise perfect.
Customer 452747, June 9th, 2021
Emergency Management
Overall, I think it's a great service. I have yet to submit the assignment, so I don't know what kind of grade I'll get. But customer service was excellent. Reviews were made and the assignment proofed for satisfaction.
Customer 453015, December 15th, 2021
Human Resources Management (HRM)
Always great! My son has been in critical health these last few semesters. Many times I have thought he wasn't going to make it and thought about quitting or postponing school until he was healthier but it always happens to be in the middle of the semester. This service has been a lifesaver for my mindset in helping keep my grades up and keep my son alive at the same time. I don't know if I could have made it through this period without it.
Customer 453077, June 6th, 2022
Business Studies
Customer 452985, November 11th, 2021
It was gotten well after time I needed to make needed additions, but it is something that did help me. I could not get the concept of ho to start such a project but now reading this, I was over thinking the project it seems.
Customer 452801, July 19th, 2021
I just need some minor alterations. Thanks.
Customer 452547, February 10th, 2021
Human Resources Management (HRM)
On time and as always a great service! This semester has been very time consuming a tough for my family so this service has not only been a life saver but helped me keep up my grades! If you are in a time crunch or need help, don't hesitate! They are worth it!
Customer 453077, April 4th, 2022
Love this writer!!! Great work
Customer 452597, April 5th, 2021
Business and administrative studies
awesome work
Customer 453201, June 15th, 2022
Business and administrative studies
awesome job
Customer 453201, June 24th, 2022
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp