There are many illnesses the treatment for which has not been found yet. Some of these diseases are rather serious, whereas others are considered not to be life-threatening but may have severe complications. One of such disorders is hypertension: it is not counted as a very serious problem, but without treatment, it may cause such a serious condition as stroke. While hypertension cannot always be cured, there are successful ways of preventing it. Based on the information gathered through the course, the preventable disease that the adult participant is at risk for developing is hypertension. The modifiable risk factor in this case is obesity management through diet. The aim of the paper is to create a teaching plan for the individual that will include tips on obesity management which will help to prevent hypertension.
Preventable Disease Overview
Hypertension belongs to some of the most common diseases all over the world. The condition has such signs and symptoms as problems with vision, excessive fatigue, irregular heartbeat, severe headaches, pain in the chest, and others (“Symptoms of high blood pressure,” 2018). Hypertension is measured with the help of a sphygmomanometer (“Tests for high blood pressure.” 2018). This is the only way of diagnosing the disease. Measuring blood pressure is not painful or time-consuming, so patients can perform it by themselves at home.
According to the America Heart Association, four types of blood pressure are distinguished: normal, elevated, stage 1 hypertension, and stage 2 hypertension (“Tests for high blood pressure.” 2018). Additional tests can be performed to identify the causes of high blood pressure or evaluate any organ damage that could have caused the problem (“Tests for high blood pressure.” 2018). These analyses include blood tests, lipid profile, hormone tests, urine tests, kidney ultrasound, and eye examination. To assess the damage to blood vessels of the heart, the physician may perform an electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, chest X-ray, or Doppler ultrasound (“Tests for high blood pressure.” 2018). These measures help the doctor to identify the causes of the issue and its possible effects. The adult participant’s risk was determined from the specific information gathered in the family genetic history.
There are different approaches to managing the modifiable risk factor, which, in this case, is obesity. One of the most successful types of interventions is the physical activity one. The evidence-based implementation of this approach is described in the article by Cadmus-Bertram, Marcus, Patterson, Parker, and Morey (2015). The method is practical for the adult participant since it involves the use of a smartphone application, which is quite suitable for the participant’s age. The primary purpose of the study by Cadmus-Bertram et al. (2015) is to evaluate the trajectory of physical activity adherence across a 16-week self-monitoring intervention. The application used for the analysis is the Fitbit tracker (Cadmus-Bertram et al., 2015). The women participating in the study were supposed to engage in 150 minutes of physical activity weekly and 10,000 steps daily (Cadmus-Bertram et al., 2015). After the first four weeks of the intervention, each participant’s goals were adjusted based on their progress. The results of the study indicate that such interventions are useful for the encouragement of women in physical activity.
The following goals can be set up for the adult participant in relation to this intervention:
- short-term: to teach the patient how to use Fitbit and record her daily progress, to instruct her on the importance of regular activity increase and on the danger of rapid intensification;
- long-term: to reach a stable weight decrease so that there would be less pressure on the patient’s blood system.
Implementation: Teaching Plan
To implement the teaching plan successfully, such methods as video lessons and lectures will be used. First of all, I will explain to the participant how the program Fitbit works and what its ultimate goals are. Then, I will encourage the patient to try using the application and ask any questions she has regarding it. Further, I will inform the participant that she can share her results with me. Apart from the app that will be the main intervention method, I will also offer the patient scholarly articles focused on similar interventions and Internet resources on hypertension and obesity and ways of eliminating these health issues with physical activity.
The evaluation of the success of the intervention and teaching plan will involve measuring the patient’s BMI. Also, I will measure the adult participant’s blood pressure to identify whether the program has been helpful. If no crucial changes are observed, I will revise the plan by including a dietary intervention in it. Additionally, in case of the plan’s failure, I will ask some friends or family members to provide support and encouragement to the patient. The short-term goal is to teach the patient how to use Fitbit and record her daily progress, to instruct her on the importance of regular activity increase and on the danger of rapid intensification. The long-term goal is to reach a stable weight decrease so that there would be less pressure on the patient’s blood system.
The focus of the paper was on creating a teaching plan for an individual with a high risk for hypertension as a result of family genetic history. The main points of the work include the overview of the preventable disease, the evidence-based intervention to manage the modifiable risk factor, and the teaching plan. It is expected that by completing the program set by the teaching plan and using additional resources, the adult participant’s modifiable risk factor will be mitigated, and hypertension will be prevented.
Cadmus-Bertram, L., Marcus, B. H., Patterson, R. E., Parker, B. A., & Morey, B. L. (2015). Use of the Fitbit to measure adherence to a physical activity intervention among overweight or obese, postmenopausal women: Self-monitoring trajectory. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 3(4), e96.