Risk Factors in the Development of Breast Cancer

Abstract

In the world today, cancer is becoming more dangerous and it is killing thousands of people. There are different kinds of cancers, which affect different genders. However, most of the cancers affect both genders. Breast cancer is a type of cancer that affects both men and women. This paper will address the risk of breast cancer in women as well as the ways in which WHI has helped to change menopause treatment in women.

Risk Factors in the Development of Breast Cancer

A risk factor is anything that affects individual’s chances of getting any disease like cancer. There are different cancers, which have different threat factors. For example, smoking can be a risk factor for cancers of the mouth, larynx, lung, and kidney among other organs. Just being a woman makes one be more at risk of getting breast cancer than being a man, mainly because of the female hormones like estrogen and progesterone. According to Parkin, Boyd & Walker (2011), another risk factor is strongly related to the age of a person, as one gets older their risk of getting cancer is higher, especially in women who are 55 years or older. Oral contraceptives have also been associated with the cause of breast cancer in women since they contain synthetic sex hormones and sex hormones are a factor that causes breast cancer. Another risk factor is associated with genetics and family history, therefore, women who have relatives with cancer are more at risk of getting breast cancer themselves. Menopause is also a risk factor in breast cancer as women who get menopause in their older age are at higher risk of getting breast cancer. Being obese has been connected with bringing about post-menopausal breast cancer, because of the body mass index being higher than usual and therefore making one become overweight. Most women have thick or big breasts and this increases their risk of getting breast cancer or what is commonly known as situ breast carcinoma. Some exposure to radiation, such as radiotherapy or X radiation, has also increased the chances of one getting breast cancer. Habits like alcohol consumption and smoking are also risk factors that are associated with someone getting breast cancer, therefore, over-indulging in these habits can place one at risk of getting breast cancer and other forms of cancers as well. According to Parking, et al. (2011), other risk factors associated with breast cancer are personal history of breast cancer, race or ethnicity, pregnancy history, breastfeeding history, menstrual history, hormone replacement therapy, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, exposure to chemicals in food, cosmetics, sunscreen, and water among others

How the Women’s Health Initiative Has Changed Treatment of Menopause in Women

The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) came up with their first result in the treatment of menopause in women back in 2002. They found out an increased risk of some diseases like heart disease, breast cancer, stroke, deep vein among others in the post-menopausal women who get hormone therapy (HT). At first, they targeted older women from the age of 63 and over, but with time they included candidates of the women aged 40 with premature menopause brought about by surgery and endocrine system deficiencies. The WHI was prospective and haphazard because it carried out a research of more than 16 000 postmenopausal women aged between 50-79 who received estrogen plus progestin or estrogen alone. According to Grossman (2014), the study was conducted to identify the outcome of two treatment types on prevention of breast and colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease as well as bone fractures. The other group of women of 65 years and over were assessed on effects of dementia and Alzheimer and how to deal with them. According to the findings by the WHI, those older women who try to avoid heart disease and Alzheimer should avoid taking the hormone therapy. Breast cancer, headaches, bloating, and mood changes are some of the side effects that most women fear when they use the hormone therapy during menopause. Because of this, they rather prefer natural methods. Other methods that the WHI came up with are counseling women about HT before they start usage, encouraging lower dosage of the HT or recommending non-HT alternatives for the menopause symptoms.

References

Grossman, S. (2014). Porth’s Pathophysiology + Prepu for Porth’s Pathophysiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Parkin D., Boyd L., & Walker C. (2011). The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010, Br J Cancer; 105 (S2): S77-S81.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Education
Very fast response and did a excellent job.
Customer 453201, May 31st, 2022
Health Care
The writer did not follow my choice of topic (Food/Water Insecurity, Hunger, & Poverty), the paper was instead written about Climate Change in Africa. However, the paper was still great and informative. Thank you!
Customer 452777, January 28th, 2022
Nursing
Paper much better compared to the one prior revision request. References need to be no more than the past 5 years.
Customer 452547, July 20th, 2021
Nursing
I just need some minor alterations. Thanks.
Customer 452547, February 10th, 2021
Human Resources Management (HRM)
My son and I have been sick for two weeks, of course at the end of my semester. I am so grateful that myhomeworkgeeks were able to help! Both papers got A's and I couldn't be more thrilled! Thank you so much and don't forget to tip your writer!
Customer 453077, February 22nd, 2022
Psychology
Received before the deadline. Great job!
Customer 453027, January 15th, 2022
Nursing
thank you so much
Customer 452749, June 10th, 2021
Business Studies
Amazing!
Customer 452985, November 11th, 2021
English 101
Thank you for this excellent analysis of the Alchemist.
Customer 453213, June 15th, 2022
Business and administrative studies
awesome work
Customer 453201, June 15th, 2022
Human Resources Management (HRM)
Very well written and very impressed with this service!
Customer 453077, February 16th, 2022
Nursing
Thank you
Customer 453087, March 5th, 2022
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp