Respiratory Diseases: Diagnostics and Management

Identification of Risk Factors

  • The patient is a male of 23 years old. He experiences breathing problems after physical exercises. He plays soccer. He participates in the game twice a week.
  • There are other negative factors. Smoking negatively influences the patient’s state. Alcohol usage is also negative. Physical exercises have a negative impact. They cause problems with the right injured knee. The patient suffers pain.

Additional Factors Connected With the Risk

There is an important indicator of the risks. The patient’s bad health heredity. The patient’s family experienced respiratory diseases. There are problems with the musculoskeletal system. They led to knee surgery.

In Which Way the Factors Increase a Risk of Disease Development

  • Smoking is a disease development risk. Especially smoking for a long time. As well as a large number of cigarettes. It leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. They lead to the oxygen supply deterioration. They violate the need for normal breathing (Healthy People 2020, n.d.).
  • The oxygen supply may not be satisfied. The problem is in an unfavorable environment. Gas contamination, dustiness, tobacco smoke, etc.
  • Breathing disorders occur with physical exertion. It is common for vegetative-vascular dystonia. The most common feeling is a labored sigh. There is a need to often inhale air. To inhale it as hard as possible. Suffocation often occurs.
  • Hyperventilation syndrome can aggravate the patient’s condition. It is connected with vegetative-vascular dystonia. During the syndrome, respiratory control is impaired. The main symptoms of hyperventilation are breath shortness. Inability to breathe. Heart palpitations. Lumps in the throat.

Definition of Short-Term Goals

  • To inform about the cause of breathing problems.
  • To define the ways of solving the problem.

Definition of Long-Term Goals

  • From a long-term perspective. To teach the client to behave correctly. Suggested for the cases of strangulation. To reduce the incidence of their occurrence.
  • The patient should give up smoking.
  • To give up soccer. To practice a more calm type of sport.

Intervention Choice for the Effective Patient’s Risk Reduction

  • A suggested risk reduction intervention is teaching. The patient needs to know “right breathing.” The exercise performing. To divide the breathing cycle into three phases. Then to increase the time for the third phase. To shorten the pause. During a pause, breathing is delayed. It is characteristic of fear.
  • Firstly the patient should take a five seconds interval. Five seconds for a slow breath. Five seconds for a pause and exhalation. Then the rhythm changes. The inhalation takes five seconds. The pause is four seconds. The exhalation is six seconds.
  • Every next time of doing breathing exercises. The seconds are removed from the pause. The time is added to the exhalation. In the end, five seconds left for inhalation. Ten seconds for exhalation.
  • The patient must breathe in a suggested way. The breathing period is three minutes. Then the tension will go away. The condition will return to normal (Jones, Harvey, Marston, & O’Connell, 2013).
  • Recommendations for severe attacks. The patient must breathe in a paper bag. The package’s edges are pressed against the nose. The person inhales and exhales air. It must be done within two-three minutes. This method quickly eliminates the disturbance of breathing. It brings the patient to life.

Intervention Usage Support

To convince the patient of the measures need. He should be familiarized with medical sources. The work of M. Jones, A. Harvey, L. Marston, & N. E. O’Connell (2013). It comprises information about breathing exercises. Information about breathing diseases is needed. It is presented on the Healthy People 2020 site.

Evaluation Method for Intervention Effectiveness Determination

To determine the effectiveness of the proposed measures. The indicators of the strangulation attacks frequency. Indication of their causes should be monitored.

The Main Evaluation Method

The method of assessing the indicators. The patient must record breathing disorders cases. The breathing disorders’ causes should be noted. The frequency of breathing exercises practice. The patient can keep an electronic diary. If desired, it can be a paper diary. The subsequent data transfer to the hospital (Mayer, 2017).

Additional Evaluation Method

In the case of insufficient data receiving. The patient will be invited to the hospital. He will be asked to undergo observation. The patient will do physical exercises. The results reflection should be made.

Additional Steps that Should be Taken in Case of Plan Insufficiency

If interventions were insufficient and ineffective. The aimed normal patient breathing is not achieved. The intervention’s nature should be changed.


  • The patient has breathing problems. They are caused by vegetative-vascular dystonia.
  • The patient is offered to quit smoking. To practise a calmer kind of sport.
  • To restore breathing. To develop correct breathing by offered breathing exercises.
  • Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed measures. It will be possible only after observation. The observation data is needed.


Healthy People 2020 (n.d.). . Web.

Jones, M., Harvey, A., Marston, L., & O’Connell, N. E. (2013). Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 5. 1-21. Web.

Mayer, B. (2017). . Critical care nursing-e-book: Diagnosis and management. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Health Sciences. Web.

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