Polypharmacy in Older Patients

Polypharmacy is a complex issue especially in the case of older patients. Chemical or physicochemical drug interactions lead to the formation of drug-drug or drug-disease compounds, which differ in activity from the starting baseline. Applying multiple incongruous kinds of medications may lead to a change in pharmacological effect as well as an increased side or toxic effects as possible variants of drug interactions. It is crucial to keep track of the patient’s medication to avoid prescribing inappropriate or incompatible drugs. According to the case description, Mrs. Z’s medication can be ranked as follows (from the least inappropriate to the most inappropriate) (Fick et al., 2003):

  • Aspirin
  • Atenolol/Valsartan/Benazepril
  • Simvastatin
  • Celecoxib
  • Pregabalin
  • Morphine Sulfate
  • Citalopram, duloxetine (antidepressants)
  • Diphenhydramine
  • Amitriptyline
  • Cyclobenzaprine

Also, diphenhydramine, cyclobenzaprine, and amitriptyline can be listed as possibly ineligible (Fick et al., 2003).

The following drug-drug interactions can be defined:

  • Benazepril – Valsartan
  • Celecoxib – Atenolol
  • Aspirin – Celecoxib
  • Citalopram – Amitriptyline/ Duloxetine/ Pregabalin
  • Cyclobenzaprine – Diphenhydramine
  • Cyclobenzaprine – Amitriptyline
  • Morphine Sulfate – Cyclobenzaprine
  • Morphine Sulfate – Diphenhydramine
  • Morphine Sulfate – Amitriptyline

According to the description, Mrs. Z has cognitive impairment. Taking into consideration the health status and multiple falls, it is inadvisable to take the centrally acting medications. Such combinations as amitriptyline, pregabalin, citalopram, morphine sulfate, and others are inappropriate (Fick et al., 2003). Besides, the woman has presumable serotonergic overactivity. It can be the consequence of medication intake.

For instance, amitriptyline, cyclobenzaprine, or citalopram may cause the woman to appear flushed. Furthermore, BP medication – on board II should be reconsidered. Mrs. Z is orthostatic; subsequently, the dose of Valsartan and Benazepril should be reduced. Thus, the described medication combinations have presumably caused the deterioration in the patient’s condition.


Fick, D., Cooper, J., Wade, W., Waller, J., Maclean, J., & Beers, M. (2003). Updating the beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: Results of a US consensus panel of experts. JAMA Internal Medicine, 163(22), 2716-2724. Web.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Thank you so much for your help! :)
Customer 453167, May 11th, 2022
Very fast response and did a excellent job.
Customer 453201, May 31st, 2022
Paper much better compared to the one prior revision request. References need to be no more than the past 5 years.
Customer 452547, July 20th, 2021
Received before the deadline. Great job!
Customer 453027, January 15th, 2022
Human Resources Management (HRM)
I finished the first deliverable of a project presentation but had no time to finish my second deliverable. The writer revamped my first deliverable and made it much more appealing! Not only was I impressed with the content but I was so grateful for the time they took to redo the background. I have been under a lot of pressure at work and at home so this has been a great service when I have had little time! I appreciate the detail and help! Always on time and always exceeding expectations!
Customer 453077, April 5th, 2022
English 101
very good paper thank you.
Customer 453083, February 18th, 2022
Business Studies
Thank you so much! I had to take my dog to the ER and had no time for the assignment. I really appreciate your help! I can't thank you enough! I really appreciate the work and integrity put into it. Thank you for taking it seriously and not bullshiting the paper.
Customer 452815, July 26th, 2021
Usually, references need to be within the past 5 years. Thank you :)
Customer 452547, July 16th, 2021
Don't really see any of sources I provided, but elsewise its great, thank you!
Customer 452697, May 8th, 2021
Looks great and appreciate the help.
Customer 452675, April 26th, 2021
Business and administrative studies
Customer 453201, November 21st, 2022
Came in as promissed. Good paper.
Customer 453027, January 6th, 2022
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp