Pathophysiology of Amenorrhea Case

There have been observed instances when women miss their menstrual cycles. When a woman misses more than three of her menstrual cycles, she is said to be suffering from amenorrhea. Available literature on this condition suggests that it can occur in two stages; primary amenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. Primary amenorrhea is experienced during the adolescent stage when a lady misses some of her menstrual cycles whereas secondary amenorrhea majorly occurs among post-adolescent women still in their childbearing age and later in their menopause.

From the presented case of the 30-year old lady, it is clear that, having missed her menstrual cycles for six months, she is suffering from secondary amenorrhea. It is further stated that, prior to her current condition, the 30-year old lady was suffering from dysmenorrhea and irregular menstrual cycles. The most logical explanation for her current condition may be due to the complications of her earlier irregular cycles and dysmenorrhea. With no information that she had sought any medical attention to her irregular menstruation and dysmenorrhea then, it is possible that this and other secondary factors may have led to her developing amenorrhea. Below is a summary of the different causes of amenorrhea and it is possible that the 30-year old lady may have developed it from among any of them.

Recent studies have concluded that amenorrhea can be as a result of different causes. For instance, there is a universal conclusion among experts that amenorrhea can be as a result of natural causes. Amenorrhea caused due to natural causes majorly arises during pregnancies, during breastfeeding and the years after menopause. There are other conditions that can trigger amenorrhea. For instance, hypothalamic amenorrhea is triggered due to the different levels of reaction of the hypothalamus. There have been studies in recent years that have linked amenorrhea to some medications, drugs and therapies. Specifically, some birth control medications and smoking have been observed to be significantly increasing the chances of an individual developing amenorrhea.

The fact that the 30-year old lady had reportedly had irregular cycles and dysmenorrhea invokes a need for further investigation into what might have caused such conditions. Given the disruptive nature of dysmenorrhea and its costly nature of treatment, there have been efforts from several researchers to detail its causes. The most prevalent cause of dysmenorrhea, as summarized by most researchers, is the production of uterine prostaglandins at excessive levels ( Daniels, Torri, & Desjardins, 2005). Further, these authors state that uterine prostaglandin, usually derived from cyclooxygenase activity, is attributed to be the main cause of the pain in the abdominal area usually exhibited by dysmenorrhea patients. The fact that the 30-year old failed to seek medical attention on how to treat her condition early, indicates that her amenorrhea developed to its current state from her earlier conditions. There is a risk that, without urgent treatment, she risks losing her childbearing capabilities.

About 60% of all women worldwide are estimated to be experiencing dysmenorrhea symptoms (Calis, 2014). Calis further states that of all these, about 10% of them have reportedly been diagnosed with symptoms of acute dysmenorrhea which is the cause of amenorrhea. With almost all studies related to amenorrhea suggesting that its prevalence is relative to different lifestyles, there is a need that proper advice is given to the 30-year lady upon her treatment. If she smokes, she should be advised to quit smoking as it is one of the factors contributing to amenorrhea’s high prevalence. Urgent treatment is necessary to the 30-year old lady’s condition lest she loses her reproductive capabilities.


Calis, K. (2014). Dysmenorrhea: practice essentials. Web.

Daniels, S., Torri, S., & Desjardins, P. (2005). Valdecoxib for treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind comparison with placebo and naproxen. Journal of general international medicine. Jan 20 (1): 62–67. Web.

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