Musculoskeletal Disorders and Intervertebral Diseases

The Pathological Process in Intervertebral Disc Disorder

Intervertebral disc disorder involves the weakening of the body, herniation and general dysfunction of the intervertebral disc (Grossman & Porth, 2014). The nucleus pulposus loses its fluid as an individual becomes older. As a result, its ability to transport materials between the vertebrae reduces (Grossman & Porth, 2014). Therefore, the materials move in a non-uniform manner via the anulus fibrosus. The structure of the anulus fibrosus deteriorates progressively (Grossman & Porth, 2014). The dehydration of the nucleus pulposus makes it unable to absorb shocks that the joints encounter. Hence, the patient feels pain as a result of the unabsorbed shocks.

The aging process may also cause the tearing of the annulus fibrosus. As a result, the nucleus pulposus begins to extrude through the torn point (Grossman & Porth, 2014). Medical experts refer to this process as disc herniation. Herniated discs, usually, press against the nerves. In the process, they radiate the pain to other parts of the body. Other effects include numbness, tingling and deterioration in the patient’s strength.

The Pathological Process of the Musculoskeletal Disorder

Musculoskeletal disorders are aches or injuries that occur in the joints, nerves, muscles, tendons and ligaments of the body. They occur due to degenerations and inflammations that cause pain and the impairment of the activities of body joints. Biomechanical loads are the main cause of the disorder. Such loads are what must be applied to perform a job. They also include the period the force is applied and the frequency the force takes to perform the task. The body is likely to encounter MSD due to the use of heavy forces in performing tasks, remaining in non-neutral positions and repetition of movements (Grossman & Porth, 2014).

Signs and Symptoms of the Intervertebral Disc Disease

Pain in the neck or back. Tenseness or tenderness in the abdomen. Lower abdominal pain that increases when standing, sitting, coughing or sneezing.

Pains in the neck can radiate into the head to cause headaches. Activities such as bending, weight lifting and twisting may worsen the pains. Serious episodes of pain in the back-they can last between some days to several months before they go back to the baseline pain of the patient. Patients may feel better while running than when sitting or standing. Changing positions frequently may also make the patient feel better. Postures that relieve stress on the vertebral disc may make the patient feel better (Grossman & Porth, 2014).

Signs and Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorder

Pain in the joints; Joint stiffness; Muscles tightness.

Some patients feel “pin and needle” sensations; Numbness; Skin color changes; Decreased sweating of the hands.

Aches and fatigue in affected areas-mostly occur while the worker is on duty, but absent at night and when he or she is not on duty. The worker’s performance is not affected. The aches and fatigue persist in later stages of the development of the disorder. The patient feels them even at night and his performance of the job is reduced (Hadler, 2005). In the last stage of the development of the disease, the pains and fatigue persist even when the patient is at rest. He cannot sleep at night (Hadler, 2005).

Difference in the Treatment of Intervertebral Disease and Musculoskeletal Disorder

Though both the musculoskeletal disorder and intervertebral diseases mostly require anti-inflammatories such as acetaminophen, other forms of treatment differ substantially. For example, the musculoskeletal disorder requires medication that increases the level of serotonin and norepinephrine (they influence sleep, pain and immunity) while intervertebral diseases mainly require surgery (Hadler, 2005). Spinal injections, weight loss and stem cell therapy are also very important in the treatment of intervertebral diseases. However, they are not used in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders because its treatment mainly concentrates on the treatment of muscular inflammations.

References

Grossman, S & Porth, C. (2014). Porth’s Pathophysiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott William & Wilkins.

Hadler, N. (2005). Occupational musculoskeletal disorders. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Business Studies
Thank you so much! I had to take my dog to the ER and had no time for the assignment. I really appreciate your help! I can't thank you enough! I really appreciate the work and integrity put into it. Thank you for taking it seriously and not bullshiting the paper.
Customer 452815, July 26th, 2021
Nursing
Usually, references need to be within the past 5 years. Thank you :)
Customer 452547, July 16th, 2021
Psychology
quick and before due date/time.
Customer 453027, January 29th, 2022
Nursing
Paper much better compared to the one prior revision request. References need to be no more than the past 5 years.
Customer 452547, July 20th, 2021
Education
Very fast response and did a excellent job.
Customer 453201, May 31st, 2022
English 101
great summery in terms of the time given. it lacks a bit of clarity but otherwise perfect.
Customer 452747, June 9th, 2021
English 101
Thank you for this excellent analysis of the Alchemist.
Customer 453213, June 15th, 2022
Business Management
Awesome job, Thank you
Customer 453201, June 12th, 2022
Economics
Nice work
Customer 453185, May 21st, 2022
Human Resources Management (HRM)
On time and as always a great service! This semester has been very time consuming a tough for my family so this service has not only been a life saver but helped me keep up my grades! If you are in a time crunch or need help, don't hesitate! They are worth it!
Customer 453077, April 4th, 2022
Business and administrative studies
awesome job
Customer 453201, June 24th, 2022
Human Resources Management (HRM)
I finished the first deliverable of a project presentation but had no time to finish my second deliverable. The writer revamped my first deliverable and made it much more appealing! Not only was I impressed with the content but I was so grateful for the time they took to redo the background. I have been under a lot of pressure at work and at home so this has been a great service when I have had little time! I appreciate the detail and help! Always on time and always exceeding expectations!
Customer 453077, April 5th, 2022
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp