Obesity among U.S. citizens is escalating rapidly, almost becoming an epidemic. Its prevalence poses a public health predicament thus necessitating urgent and thoughtful prevention measures. Further, Obesity causes diverse challenges to communities thus making it a societal health concern. Anecdotal evidence shows obesity incidence disparities among communities’ residents. Addressing obesity attracts the efforts of diverse segments of authorities and actors. The initiation of “nationally defined health objectives” facilitated by “Healthy People 2020” aims to reduce Obesity prevalence significantly (Fulton, Carroll, Galuska, Lee, & et al., 2011). Notably, bodily activity promises substantial importance in addressing Obesity. As a result, diverse authorities encourage communities to engage in various bodily exercises. Through health campaigns, participating in such exercises joins populations thus addressing obesity. This essay discusses obesity and recommends participation in muscle-strengthening activities thus reducing its prevalence.
Addressing obesity necessitates the participation of different actors. Moreover, the models that explain obesity determination include genetic inheritance and socioeconomic status (SES) (Stunkard, 2008). The information generated from vital statistics and disease registries assists in obesity analysis. Additionally, information from managed care also facilitates obesity analysis. Muscle-strengthening targets youngsters and youths from diverse races. The surveillance system for monitoring obesity includes BRFSS and the “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System” (YRBSS) (Wang & Beydoun, 2007). In addition, NHANES also gains use in monitoring obesity. Addressing obesity relies on various epidemiology tools including disease incidence, ailment prevalence, and community screening.
Identified Issue and Objective: Obesity and Muscle Strengthening Activity
Obesity emerges as a major predicament because it affects everyone including children. It is an intricate health concern with considerable health, communal, and fiscal ramifications. Therefore, responding to such a pandemic necessitates certain approaches and actors. The responses for Obesity include bodily activity that prevents its development (Fulton et al., 2011). Similarly, obese people engaging in diverse sports also reduce their conditions significantly. Remarkably, communities and residents participate in muscle strengthening, which “Healthy People 2020” has identified as one of its objectives (Fulton et al., 2011). People engaging in stringing of their muscles as a form of physical activity significantly prevent obesity.
Federal, State, and Local Agencies Addressing and Managing Obesity
Notably, addressing Obesity commonness necessitates multi-stakeholder participation thus joining efforts to reduce fatness among populations. Further, stakeholder initiatives attempt to check citizens’ fatness levels. The federal agencies tasked with addressing and managing obesity predicaments include “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity” (DNPAO). The agency’s scope also appears to entail interventions for encouraging physical activities. The “Department of Health and Human Services” also avails funds for facilitating the organization of physical activities. The “American Academy of Pediatrics” also advocates for communities involved in physical activities.
States also appear to recognize the escalating expenditures associated with Obesity thus tasking their agencies to establish strategies for encouraging healthy lifestyles and physical activities. The states agencies participating in Obesity management include the “Departments of Health” that establish different initiatives for addressing Obesity. Local-level agencies also address obesity by undertaking diverse activities that aim to prevent its prevalence. The local governments initiate obesity reduction programs through collaborations.
Models and Systems used to Determine and Analyze Obesity
Certain models determine the occurrence of obesity among individuals. Firstly, scientists argue that genetic factors have links with obesity existence. Studies completed using the twin method indicated that “body mass index” (BMI) was inheritable (Stunkard, 2008). These studies have shown high degrees of genetic inheritance that cause obesity. Secondly, scientists also use the system of body fat distribution among individuals. This study determines obesity occurrence by taking measurements of the fat distribution using the waist-hip quotients. This measurement reveals upper body overweight that has a waist: the hip quotient of more than 1.0. This ratio is also 0.8 among women (Stunkard, 2008). Thirdly, SES also determines obesity occurrence among individuals. Studies indicate augmented obesity prevalence among persons’ of diminished SES. It influenced obesity because increasing SES caused lower obesity while individuals whose SES declined also recorded higher obesity rates (Stunkard, 2008).
Vital statistics regarding obesity incidence regularly find use in availing data for determining obesity occurrence and commonness. “National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey” (NHANES) regularly engage in monitoring obesity commonness thus availing data used to analyze the disease (Ogden & Carroll, 2010). The NHANES 2007-2008 outcomes approximate that 16.9 per cent of youngsters and youths ranging 2-19 years suffer obesity. This appears to connote that obesity escalated from the earlier years. These studies rely on measuring the BMI of individuals. The BMI measurement entails measuring an individual’s weight and dividing by their height thus giving Kg/m2 (Ogden & Carroll, 2010). The vital statistics also avail data that gains use in determining and analyzing obesity prevalence among races. This enables comprehension of the disparities among adolescents.
Data that emanate from managed care also finds use in obesity determination and analysis. These data entail information collected by managed care institutions from their membership. Storing the collected information occurs in electronic formats. Further, certain organizations also amass clients’ details on papers (Lee, Sheer, Lopez & Rosenbaum, 2010). The institutions accumulate clients’ information regarding diverse conditions and diseases. Medicaid coverage of adolescent citizens enables the data collection from the youths regarding their obese conditions (Lee et al., 2010). Therefore, the collected information will regularly gain use in determining the existence of obesity. Private health insurers also collect different health information from their client’s thus contributing data for obesity determination. Furthermore, such data will also find use in analyzing the condition and its prevalence.
Obesity determination and analysis also benefit from data attained from disease registries. These are databases that have details about individuals diagnosed with certain ailments. Notably, most registries exist in hospitals thus containing information regarding patients who suffer certain sicknesses observed and treatment conducted within that clinic (Hedgecoth, 2009). Therefore, hospitals will likely have an obesity registry, which contains all patients in their obesity treatment program. The information contained in these registries regularly assists in availing data for determining and analyzing obesity incidences in populations (Hedgecoth, 2009). Furthermore, there are residents-based registries, which contain details about people diagnosed with certain diseases within specific geographic locations. The establishment of the registries occurs for diverse ailments. It appears that such registries can contain data on people diagnosed with obesity in different regions. This also helps in availing relevant data for the determination and analysis of obesity (Hedgecoth, 2009).
Community and Targeted Population Targeted by Muscle Strengthening Activity
Significantly, almost everyone can engage in sports for purposes of addressing obesity. However, this objective will join students from diverse racial backgrounds (Fulton et al., 2011). This is because the community consists of citizens from assorted tribal backgrounds. This activity also focuses on allowing both genders to undertake the exercise. The community will endeavor to facilitate their youths to gain the opportunity to participate in the novel activity (Fulton et al., 2011). This objective targets a population of fifth-grade to tenth-grade students within the community. The undertaking of this activity will occur daily after school. The program targets a population of approximately five hundred youths.
Epidemiologic Surveillance Systems for Monitoring Obesity
The epidemiological surveillance designs created for monitoring the prevalence include the “Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System” (BRFSS) (Wang & Beydoun, 2007). The system entails recurring surveys that determine certain mannerisms that facilitate acquiring a certain disease. The system completes health surveys through telephone interviews. This enables gaining information regarding fatness conditions and their related risk factors. BRFSS documents obesity levels and the prevailing physical activities.
Making telephone contacts occur on monthly basis and targets youths aged eighteen and over (Wang & Beydoun, 2007). The interviewees ask questions related to various manners, which may escalate obesity. CDC avails support for using BRFSS to collect data regarding obesity from definite regions. This is because BRFSS allows for the observation of geographic disparities. Most intervention strategies attempt to avoid disease incidences by checking detrimental behaviors. Therefore, BRFSS surveys give a straight assessment of the consequences of detrimental behaviors on populations (Wang & Beydoun, 2007). This assessment regularly informs people on the consequences earlier before their emergence on people. The BRFSS appraisals notably avail well-timed assessments of program successfulness for obesity interventions.
Obesity monitoring also occurs through using the NHANES system (Wang & Beydoun, 2007). This system entails numerous cross-sectional, nationwide delegates’ observation surveys. The “National Center for Health Statistics” completes these surveys. The NHANES is also ongoing thus collecting information from the delegates’ regarding obesity. Another monitoring system for obesity is “YRBSS” (Wang & Beydoun, 2007). This continuous monitoring system observes dangerous behaviors that cause obesity. The system also observes diverse social issues among youths that may escalate the development of obesity.
Epidemiology Tools within Other Areas of the Health Care System Needed to Address Obesity
In health care systems, there are various epidemiology tools, which assist in completing risk assessments and examining trends of ailments and health. Apparently, some of these tools can also help in addressing obesity predicaments. The incidence of disease tool measures the number of novel obesity cases, which emerge from the community (USAID, 2010). This tool helps find information regarding the new obesity cases that develop within the population in the community. Disease Prevalence is also an epidemiology tool that measures the number of fatness cases among residents at a particular time. This tool will also assist in addressing obesity because it avails information regarding the population that suffers from the condition (USAID, 2010). Another tool entails community screening that assists in recognizing obesity cases within populations through tests and observations. The tool helps to separate people suffering from obesity from the population. The exercise does not connote a diagnosis because it merely identifies obese persons or those at risk. These tools are paramount in addressing obesity because they identify sick people together with the group at risk (USAID, 2010).
In summary, “Healthy People 2020” identified that muscle strengthening reduces obesity thus inviting communities to undertake the activity (Fulton et al., 2011). Efforts directed at addressing obesity join different actors originating from the federal agencies. Furthermore, states agencies also contribute to addressing obesity. Genetic heredity together with SES explains the models for determining obesity. Obesity analysis also relies on information generated from vital statistics together with disease registries. Furthermore, information from managed care also assists in obesity analysis. Muscle-strengthening objectives notably target youngsters and youths originating from diverse races. The surveillance system that gains use in monitoring obesity entails BRFSS. Furthermore, NHANES and “YRBSS” also monitor obesity (Wang & Beydoun, 2007). Addressing obesity also relies on various epidemiology tools including disease incidence, ailment prevalence, and community screening.
Fulton, J., Carroll, D., Galuska, D., Lee, S., et al. (2011). Physical Activity Level of High School Students. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 60 (23):773-777.
Hedgecoth, J. (2009). Chronic Disease Registries. Web.
Lee, J., Sheer, J., Lopez, N. & Rosenbaum, S. (2010). Coverage of Obesity Treatment: A State-by-State Analysis of Medicaid and State Insurance Laws. Public Health Reports, 125: 596-604.
Ogden, C. & Carroll, M. (2010). Prevalence of Obesity Among Children and Adolescents: United States, Trends 1963–1965 Through 2007–2008. Web.
Stunkard, A. (2008). Factors in Obesity: Current Views. Web.
USAID. (2010). Primary Health Care Initiatives (PHCI) Project. Web.
Wang, Y. & Beydoun, M. (2007). American Journal of Epidemiology, 29 (1), 6-28.