Malaria: Epidemiologic Triangle & Prevention Levels

The Epidemiologic Triangle of Malaria

The epidemiologic triangle is a model that is used by health professionals to study and understand underlying health challenges using three vertices, namely agent, host, and environment. The agent represents the microbe that triggers the infection, while the host denotes the organism harboring the infection. The environment consists of all external factors that come into play to cause or allow the transmission of the infection (Baird, Bangs, Maguire, & Barcus, 2002).

Malaria is an infectious disease not only because it is caused by microbial agents, but also because it is passed from person to person. Available scholarship demonstrates that an epidemiologic triangle is an effective tool in assisting health professionals to understand the transmission of malaria (Snow, 2015). Indeed, it is documented that “the risk of malaria is highly dependent on interactions between the host, parasite, mosquito vector, and environment, a relationship known as the epidemiological triad of disease” (Baird et al., 2002, p. 13). The host in the epidemiological triangle of malaria is the human being who provides the vector with a means of survival through the blood meal.

Moving on, the agent represents the microbes that cause malaria, namely “Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, related sibling species of P. ovale, and P. knowlesi” (Snow, 2015, p. 1). Environmental factors which trigger malaria outbreaks in most regions include rainfall, attitude, and temperature; however, the actual transmission of malaria requires mosquito vectors in the genus Anopheles (Baird et al., 2002). In environmental factors, it should be noted that high relative humidity enhances mosquito life-span (Snow, 2015) and that vectors survive and are capable of transmitting the disease within the temperature range of 20-30°C and humidity level of less than 60% (Baird et al., 2002).

Levels of Prevention

Infectious diseases such as malaria can be prevented and managed using primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention. In epidemiological contexts, primary prevention entails reducing malaria transmission by decreasing the human and relevant vectors, minimizing the vector population density in critical areas, as well as changing vector longevity with the view to reducing the incidence of disease (A Guide to Malaria, 2006). Primary prevention can therefore be achieved by using skin repellants, spraying houses with insecticides, draining stagnant water, and clearing bushes, among others.

Secondary prevention entails “controlling and reducing individual risks by using the full range of personal protection and behavior modification measures” (A Guide to Malaria, 2006, p. 8). Some examples of secondary prevention strategies for nurses include facilitating awareness and education of the risk of malaria, encouraging the use of personal protection measures such as proper clothing, ensuring that patients comply with chemoprophylaxis, as well as assisting in the prompt diagnosis and early treatment of malaria. Tertiary prevention entails implementing strategies that aim to minimize the number and/or impact of complications arising from the disease. Here, a good strategy would be to undertake long-term management of individuals presenting with repeat malaria complications (Rudman, 2004).

Lastly, nursing professionals have significant roles to play in the prevention and management of malaria. Broadly, these roles include (1) advancing educational and awareness campaigns on the existing malaria prevention strategies and approaches, (2) ensuring that sick patients are diagnosed properly and managed quickly using the right chemoprophylaxis, and (3) taking part in malaria surveillance and distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to encourage proactive prevention as opposed to reactive treatment and management of the disease.


A guide to malaria management programs in the oil and gas industry. (2006). Web.

Baird, J.K., Bangs, M.J., Maguire, J.D., & Barcus, M.J. (2002). Epidemiologic measures of risk of malaria. In D.L. Doolan (Ed.), Methods in molecular medicine, vol. 72: Malaria methods and protocols (pp. 13-22). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, Inc.

Rudman, M.S. (2007). Diagnosis dilemma: Is it severe malaria? Medical Journal of Therapeutics Africa, 1(1), 41-44.

Snow, R.W. (2015). Global malaria eradication and the importance of plasmodium falciparum epidemiology in Africa. BMC Medicine, 13(1), 1-3.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Business and administrative studies
Customer 453201, October 22nd, 2022
Impressive writing
Customer 452547, February 6th, 2021
I am beyond eager to write this review for this writer. I received a grade of "Mastered"upon first submission on this assignment. I will shout to the rooftops ENCOURAGING you to hire him. I have used other writers but NONE have delivered such awesome work as this writer and NONE of their prices can compare to his. He does not try to "break the bank" and he works hard; it shows in the final paper and the grade. He is simply,THE BEST HERE!!
Customer 452995, November 16th, 2021
Thank you. No issues
Customer 453139, April 17th, 2022
English 101
Thank you for this excellent analysis of the Alchemist.
Customer 453213, June 15th, 2022
English 101
very good paper thank you.
Customer 453083, February 18th, 2022
Human Resources Management (HRM)
Always great! My son has been in critical health these last few semesters. Many times I have thought he wasn't going to make it and thought about quitting or postponing school until he was healthier but it always happens to be in the middle of the semester. This service has been a lifesaver for my mindset in helping keep my grades up and keep my son alive at the same time. I don't know if I could have made it through this period without it.
Customer 453077, June 6th, 2022
Business and administrative studies
awesome work
Customer 453201, June 15th, 2022
IT, Web
Awesome paper in such a short amount of time. Was in a jam with another service who didn't deliver, but Theresa did the job correctly. I will use her again to do my essays for sure!
Customer 452967, November 27th, 2021
Business Studies
First of all, the writer made sure that he completely understood my assignment and all the guidelines before he began writing. My paper was finished very fast and well before the specified deadline. I thought it was written excellently. He definitely completely grasped the topic. Overall, he is a great writer and I couldn't have asked for better.
Customer 452441, November 29th, 2021
Business Studies
Thank you very much for a good job done and a quick turn around time.
Customer 452615, March 31st, 2021
Social Work and Human Services
Great work I would love to continue working with this writer thought out the 11 week course.
Customer 452667, May 30th, 2021
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp