Madeleine Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing Theory

The evaluation of whether nursing is a science, an art, or both has been at the centre of discussions of the nursing theories. For instance, one perspective considers nursing to be a basic science that consists of the nursing knowledge, which nurses practice to better human life (Barrett, 2002). A different perspective is that nursing is an art, which encompasses the practice of the nursing discipline (Barrett, 2002). The nature of nursing, as summed up from Madeleine Leininger’s concepts in transcultural nursing theory, is that nursing is a science.

Leininger’s transcultural nursing theory takes cognizance of the role of cultural differences in determining the efficacy of nursing. According to the theory, also known as cultural care theory, culture is “the learned shared, and transmitted values, beliefs, norms, and life practices of a particular group that guides thinking, decisions, and actions in patterned ways”, it determines the care that individuals desire from professional carers (Leininger, 1988, p. 156). Using her anthropology background, Leininger embarked on the study of how diversity in culture may affect the patients’ evaluation of care. This led to the clamour for nurses to be culturally competent in providing care to their patients. As such, based on Leininger’s work, nursing is a science since it fits a description of science as articulated by Parse. That is, science is “the theoretical explanation of the subject of inquiry and the methodological process of attaining knowledge in a discipline; thus, science is both product and process” (Parse as cited in Barrett, 2002, p. 51).

Surrogate Decision Makers

  1. Individuals are eligible to act as surrogate decision makers in the State of Texas.

Chapter 597, section 041, subsection (a) of the Texas Health and Safety Code provides for individuals who should act as surrogate decision-makers, in case an individual lacks the capacity to make a decision concerning ones treatment. In order of descending priority, the surrogate decision-maker should be:

    1. a spouse actively involved in the life of the patient,
    2. an adult child actively involved in the life of the patient and who has been approved to act as a sole decision-maker by all other adult actively involved in the patient’s life,
    3. a parent or stepparent who is actively involved in the patient’s life,
    4. an adult sibling who is actively involved with the patient’s life and has the approval to act as a sole decision-maker by all other adult siblings actively involved in the patient’s life,
    5. any other adult relative actively involved in the patient’s life and with approval to act as sole decision-maker of all other adult relatives actively involved in the patient’s life.
  1. Resolution of disputes concerning a party’s right to act as a surrogate decision-maker

Subsection (d) highlights the resolution process for disputes concerning a party’s right to act as a surrogate decision-maker. Such disputes are to be resolved only “by a court of record under Chapter V, Texas Probate Code” (Tex. Health and Safety Code § 597.041(d), 2005).

  1. Limitations of consent for the surrogate decision-maker in the State of Texas.

Limitations of consent to the surrogate decision-maker can only be applicable if the patient makes decision on his or her own. According to the subsection (c), “consent given by the surrogate decision-maker is valid and competent to the same extent as if the client had the capacity to consent and had consented” (Tex. Health and Safety Code § 597.041(c), 2005).

Informed consent

The American Nurses Association (ANA) provides guidelines in a formal code of ethics to help nurses make appropriate decisions when they face ethical dilemmas. In Fred’s case, provision 1, 2 and 3 guide a nurse’s decision. Provision 1 expects nurses to be compassionate and respect their client’s dignity, worth and uniqueness, irrespective of client’s social, health, economic or personal status (ANA, 2001). In Fred’s case, the particular guidance would be “respect for human dignity and the right to self-determination” (ANA, 2001, n.p). Since Fred has expressed his wish to discontinue therapy on the research drug, I would disrespect his right to self-determination and hence his dignity, as such I will continue providing him with such a therapy, for him to avoid disappointing his family and his doctor (Masters, 2009, p. 93).

Provision 2 establishes that the “nurse’s primary commitment is to the patient” (ANA, 2001, n.p.). In such commitment, the nurse, as per item 1 of the provision, needs to put the client’s interest above all other interests. In Fred’s case, his wish is to discontinue the therapy on the chemotherapeutic drug. As such, failure to honour such a wish could subject him to undesirable consequences that negate his interests. Accordingly, the interests of Fred would be served better by discontinuing the therapy and providing supportive therapy that would relieve his suffering.

Provision 3 expects the nurse to advocate for the patient’s rights, safety and health (ANA, 2001). In item 3 of this provision, nurses ought to protect their patients, when such patients participate in research (ANA, 2001). Since Fred desires to discontinue his participation in research, I would facilitate his leaving to protect him from the negative outcomes that have made him desire to leave the research (Butts & Rich, 2005, p. 42).


American Nurses Association (ANA). (2001). Washington, DC: American Nurses publishing. Web.

Barrett, E. A. M. (2002). What is nursing science? Nursing Science Quarterly, 15(1), 51-60, Web.

Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. (2005). Nursing ethics: Across the curriculum and into practice. London: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Leininger, M. M. (1988). Leininger’s theory of nursing: Cultural care diversity and universality. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1(4), 152-160, Web.

Masters, K. (2009). Role development in professional nursing practice (2nd. ed.). London: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Tex. Health and Safety Code § 597.041 (2005).

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
It's the second time I use this service and it does not let me down. Work quality is so good for its price!
Customer 452985, December 3rd, 2021
Health Care
The writer did not follow my choice of topic (Food/Water Insecurity, Hunger, & Poverty), the paper was instead written about Climate Change in Africa. However, the paper was still great and informative. Thank you!
Customer 452777, January 28th, 2022
Emergency Management
Overall, I think it's a great service. I have yet to submit the assignment, so I don't know what kind of grade I'll get. But customer service was excellent. Reviews were made and the assignment proofed for satisfaction.
Customer 453015, December 15th, 2021
Came in as promissed. Good paper.
Customer 453027, January 6th, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Although it took 2 revisions I am satisfied but I did receive it late because of that.
Customer 452603, March 25th, 2021
Human Resources Management (HRM)
My son and I have been sick for two weeks, of course at the end of my semester. I am so grateful that myhomeworkgeeks were able to help! Both papers got A's and I couldn't be more thrilled! Thank you so much and don't forget to tip your writer!
Customer 453077, February 22nd, 2022
quick, fast and exact!
Customer 453027, May 24th, 2022
Thank you!!! I received my order in record timing.
Customer 452551, February 9th, 2021
Received before the deadline. Great job!
Customer 453027, January 15th, 2022
Business Studies
Thank you so much! I had to take my dog to the ER and had no time for the assignment. I really appreciate your help! I can't thank you enough! I really appreciate the work and integrity put into it. Thank you for taking it seriously and not bullshiting the paper.
Customer 452815, July 26th, 2021
Thank you!
Customer 453145, April 19th, 2022
Thank you!
Customer 452545, February 6th, 2021
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp