Infectious Diseases: The Virus of Salmonella

Table of Contents

Introduction

A rising incidence of infectious diseases forces healthcare organizations around the globe to take response measures to stabilize the occurring situation. The recent studies indicate that the virus of Salmonella has been responsible for 69% of community-acquired bloodstream infections in the African region over the past four decades (Uche, MacLennan, & Saul, 2017). Along with the host and agent indicators, environmental constituents arrive as the key factor to impact the disease prevalence: changes in climate have allowed the infection to be spread around other climatic zones as well.

The American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) puts maximum effort to educate their nurses about the effective models of care delivery to patients with infectious diseases. The implementation of evidence-based practices grants clinicians an opportunity to approach the treatment much more efficiently.

Disease Analysis and Demographic Breakdown

Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a substantial cause of community-acquired infections worldwide. Considering its incidence in Africa, “with the serovars Typhimurium and Enteriditis responsible for 91% of NTS bacteremia,” the disease poses a threat to the life of every infected individual (Uche et al., 2017, p. 17). As to the mortality and morbidity statistics, the average fatality rate counts for 20.6% and serves as one of the major reasons for a demographic breakdown in the region (Uche et al., 2017, p. 17). The prevalence of infection is considerably higher in such food products as beef, poultry, and pork.

Lack of hygiene and contact with reptiles may be additional causes of contamination. Common symptoms usually list for fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, and other signs. Transmission is usually performed orally through the ingestion of contaminated food. If not timely treated, the disease may provoke complications associated with pain in joints (arthritis), the lining of tissues, vascular occlusion, and more. Standard treatment involves drinking a lot of fluids and taking antibiotics throughout the course.

Determinants of Health and Risk Factors

The determinants of health-related to Salmonella development include such factors as a sustainable farming system, the quality of consumed water, food packaging, delivery time, the state of one’s health and immune system, and more. They can be synthesized according to the following categories: the quality of manufacturing, adherence to safety norms, delivery speed, and individual’s state of health. The biological agent of the disease is always a microbe (Salmonella Typhimurium), causing the outbreak of the infection (Rodriguez-Rivera et al., 2016). An agent is known to infect a host, which can be either a human or an animal. A host does not necessarily fall ill, as it can act as a carrier without showing any symptoms.

Environmental factors, such as climatic conditions, population density, interaction with other humans and species (shaking hands, playing in sandboxes, getting in touch with reptiles, chickens, or cattle) tend to determine the rate of disease incidence. A conducive environment (weak immune system or polluted air/water) allows bacteria and viruses to thrive more rapidly. In Asia, where the population density is higher compared to other regions, the prevalence of the infection is also higher.

The Role of Nurses in the Management of Infectious Diseases

Understanding the very principles of disease transmission is essential for nurses since it leads to more effective care delivery and more open communication with patients. One also gets the needed knowledge as to how to protect oneself during contact with the infected. A nurse’s role in disease management involves screening for possible cases of its further spreading, respiratory precautions, surveillance for the presence of symptoms or complaints, and other duties (Olans, Olans, & DeMaria Jr, 2015).

The primary interventions are reduced to controlling the intake/injection of antibiotics and monitoring the recovery dynamics. The secondary measures involve collecting information, identifying changes in the disease flow, and analyzing data. Finally, the tertiary interventions presuppose reporting to doctors and providing care.

To ensure that nurses’ tasks are achievable, healthcare organizations have developed behavioral models to support nurse practitioners in performing their duties. AANP, for example, makes emphasis the need to utilize various evidence-based theories, among which one may figure out Johnson’s behavioral model, Neuman’s system model, Imogene King’s theory, and other concepts (Olans et al., 2015).

Imogene King’s model finds the largest applicability due to a simple and logical chain of actions. It offers perception, judgment, action, reaction, interaction, transaction (Olans et al., 2015). The theory provides nurses with an opportunity to quickly identify a client’s situation and even plan preliminary interventions. With regards to epidemiological tasks and the treatment of Salmonella, in particular, the model allows one to quickly collect the required data and transfer them to doctors/managers.

Conclusion

The virus of Salmonella is among the infectious diseases that are characterized by high mortality statistics and rising prevalence worldwide. Efficient treatment of the infection is one of the key duties nurse practitioners need to fulfill in a clinical setting. To help them cope with the mentioned task, healthcare organizations have introduced specific theoretical models aimed at the improvement of nurses’ performance. Imogene King’s theory is a concept that is highly applicable in treating viral infections.

References

Olans, R. N., Olans, R. D., & DeMaria Jr, A. (2015). The critical role of the staff nurse in antimicrobial stewardship – unrecognized, but already there. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 62(1), 84-89.

Rodriguez-Rivera, L. D., Cummings, K. J., Loneragan, G. H., Rankin, S. C., Hanson, D. L., Leone, W. M., & Edrington, T. S. (2016). Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility among dairy farm environmental samples collected in Texas. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 13(4), 205-211.

Uche, I. V., MacLennan, C. A., & Saul, A. (2017). A systematic review of the incidence, risk factors and case fatality rates of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Africa (1966 to 2014). PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(1), 1-28.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Nursing
Thank you so much for your help! :)
Customer 453167, May 11th, 2022
Nursing
It was a very long paper, but she followed all the instructions, and she even finished the paper 5 days before the due date. Will write an essay with her again, thanks!
Customer 452967, November 27th, 2021
Nursing
Thank you
Customer 453087, March 5th, 2022
Nursing
thank you so much
Customer 452749, June 10th, 2021
English 101
great summery in terms of the time given. it lacks a bit of clarity but otherwise perfect.
Customer 452747, June 9th, 2021
Classic English Literature
It was my first time using such a service. Essay was good and nicely formatted.
Customer 452441, February 16th, 2022
Psychology
Thank you!
Customer 452545, February 6th, 2021
Other
Thank you , Excellent work
Customer 453201, June 2nd, 2022
Communications
Thank you so much for your attention to this assignment and timeliness.
Customer 453111, November 12th, 2022
Business and administrative studies
awesome job
Customer 453201, June 24th, 2022
Nursing
Usually, references need to be within the past 5 years. Thank you :)
Customer 452547, July 16th, 2021
Social Sciences
Very fast report with excellent information on the topic. Thank you for your speedy service in such a short time.
Customer 453213, June 15th, 2022
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp