Implications of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity

Table of Contents


Obesity remains one of the most serious health public issues. Obesity greatly affects all aspects of individual and public health. Adolescents are particularly susceptible to the risks of obesity. Negative implications of childhood and adolescent obesity continue to persist during adulthood. Unfortunately, the incidence and prevalence of childhood obesity do not decrease. As of today, almost 20% of children 6-11 in the United States are diagnosed with obesity (CDC, 2011). Two thirds of obese adolescents face at least one risk factor for developing cardiovascular complications (CDC, 2010). In Delaware alone, 33% of children are either obese or overweight (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2010). One of the Healthy People 2020 objectives is to promote healthy diets and maintain healthy body weights. In this situation, the need for implementing a public health plan is obvious. This plan must address the social and cultural concerns of the target population (fifth-tenth grade students), as well as induce and sustain the desired change in individual and community behaviors.

Implementation Details

The proposed plan relies on and incorporates the elements of the Planet Health school-based community intervention against childhood and adolescent obesity, proposed by Gortmaker et al (1999). In the Planet Health intervention, each school received training workshops and classroom lessons, wellness sessions and funds. The proposed plan is limited to muscle strengthening activities; as part of the plan, each school receives the fullest information about the program, the program plan, teacher training workshops, public health recommendations, and funds. The goal of the program is to ensure that fifth-tenth grade students engage in at least three hours of physical activity every week. The program combines the features of a school-based policy, with a variety of extracurricular activities to strengthen muscles. The plan is implemented through changes in school curriculums and the development of extracurricular activities. The plan necessitates curriculum changes, to ensure that all students in grades through fifth to tenth have access to a minimum of three hours of muscle strengthening activities every week.

The program relies on collaboration among businesses, schools, and public health institutions. Sport and exercise activities to foster muscle strengthening among students necessitate active participation of businesses. Price discounts on pedometers are provided to encourage walking and running among children (Pratt et al, 2004). Local authorities and businessmen are encouraged to make investments in the development of new and improvement of the existing school-based sports equipment and facilities (Pratt et al, 2004). The program covers low-income school students and minority schools: the program involves the use of sport stamps, which are similar to food stamps and provide low-income students with free access to sports facilities (Pratt et al, 2004). Schools and recreational facilities are recommended and encouraged to enter in agreements, to avail their facilities for students outside of school hours (Pratt et al, 2004). Teachers and community nurses involve students in public leisure activities, to reduce the amount of time they spend in front of TV sets.

Assessing Health and Wellness

Universal Assessment and Chronic Care Models of Assessment are used to evaluate health and wellness of program participants and the entire community. The Universal Assessment model comprises the elements of identification, assessment, and prevention (Barlow, 2007). Body Mass Index (BMI) serves the basic measure of assessing and preventing overweight and obesity in students in grades five to ten. Children are divided into different health categories, based on their BMI (Barlow, 2007). Healthy children are those with 5-84th BMI percentiles. Children in the 85-95th percentiles are considered at risk of obesity, whereas children with the BMI above the 96th percentile are considered obese (Barlow, 2007). These children are encouraged to participate in the muscle strengthening activity program. Family history of obesity, physical activity and diet patterns are used to create a complete picture of health state.

The Chronic Care Model is integrally linked to and supports the implementation process. “The chronic care model envisions a new structure that integrates community resources, health care, and patient self-management to provide more comprehensive and more useful care” (Barlow, 2007, p. S170). Schools, sports facilities, and public health institutions are integrated into a single model of physical activity provision, which evaluates health improvements against the background of the program implementation. These resources also allow to repeat the cycle of interventions, until the desired goal is met (Barlow, 2007).

Assessing health and wellness of the program participants is impossible without considering the cultural and social factors affecting their health. This is because cultural beliefs about weight and physical activity greatly affect individual behaviors (Barlow, 2007). How individuals participate in physical activity differs across cultural, racial, and ethnic groups (Barlow, 2007). Many low-income mothers recognize obesity as a serious health problem, but not before their children become obese (Barlow, 2007). In this situation, obesity can become a limiting factor and children’s participation in the muscle strengthening activity extremely problematic. Therefore, health and wellness assessment among students in grades five to ten necessitates detailed assessment of their cultural values and beliefs.

Any improvement in public health is impossible, if nurses and health departments fail to overcome individual barriers to program implementation. These barriers include but are not limited to the lack of parent involvement in the program, lack of motivation among children and their parents, and the absence of quality support services (Story et al, 2002). On the institutional side, pediatricians and nurses often lack time to develop, implement, and participate in such programs (Story et al, 2002). Nurses may lack skills and training required to manage behavioral interventions and guide parenting techniques (Story et al, 2002). Parental concern about how much children weight and participate in physical activity presents a serious barrier to improving population health (Kumanyika, 2008). Mothers may be simply unaware that the child is becoming overweight and needs more physical activity (Kumanyika, 2008). Chamberlin et al (2002) also list the factors impeding improvements in children’s health, including the use of food as a coping mechanism. In the meantime, mothers may lack knowledge about normal eating and physical activity behaviors in children (Chamberlin et al, 2002). Sometimes, multiple program players provide conflicting advice to mothers, whereas the latter fail to increase the amount of time spent by children in muscle strengthening activities (Chamberlin et al, 2002).

Socioeconomic, infrastructure, worldwide, ecological, and environmental barriers can reduce the efficiency of the proposed muscle strengthening activity program. Changes in built environments reflect and pursue a common shift toward sedentary lifestyles (Sallis & Glanz, 2002). These changes cause direct effects on the incidence and prevalence of obesity among children (Sallis & Glanz, 2002). The significance of the relationship between built environments and adolescent obesity cannot be overstated (Sallis & Glanz, 2002). Recent development patterns, including the lack of sidewalks and sports facilities in low-income schools, as well as long distances and busy traffic, discourage children from walking, biking, and participating in muscle strengthening activities (Sallis & Glanz, 2002).

Environmental and ecological implications contribute to public health problems in the target population. Changes in social and economic conditions include increased television advertising, increased portion sizes in restaurants, increased popularity of fast food, and even increased concerns about neighborhood safety; all these factors may prevent students in grades from five to ten from attending physical activity programs (Chamberlin et al, 2002). Socio-cultural environments and poverty challenge public health improvements (Kumanyika, 2008).

Epidemiology and Data Models

Numerous models can help to determine and assess the epidemiology of obesity and overweight among fifth-tenth grade students in Delaware. First, the Body Mass Index (BMI) exemplifies an important and useful approach to measuring changes in the epidemiology of child obesity (Stunkard, 2008). The model allows for determining the risks of overweight and obesity, by measuring body fat distribution through the waist-hip quotients. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is another epidemiological surveillance model for monitoring the prevalence of obesity in the target population (Wang & Beydoun, 2007). The system relies on recurrent surveys to determine the presence or absence of factors that facilitate the development of a disease. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), hospital registries, and obesity incidence data have the potential to create a complete and sophisticated picture of obesity epidemiology in the target population. The NHANES model entails the use of cross-sectional observation surveys to collect information regarding obesity (Wang & Beydoun, 2007). The use of multiple instruments of data collection will enhance the validity and reliability of primary data.


Obesity greatly affects all aspects of individual and public health. Therefore, it is essential that a muscle strengthening activity is implemented, to improve the epidemiological picture of overweight and obesity among Delawarean fifth-tenth grade students. The program incorporates the elements of school-based interventions and extracurricular activities. The main goal of the program is to ensure that fifth-tenth grade students spend at least three hours in muscle strengthening activities every week. Certainly, the program is just a minor element in a sophisticated network of public health activities to reduce and prevent obesity in school children. Additional efforts are needed to sustain the achievements and results of the program in the long run.


Barlow, S.E. (2007). Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: Summary report. Pediatrics, 120(4), S164-S192.

Chamberlin, L.A., Sherman, S.N., Jain, A., Powers, S.W. & Whitaker, R.C. (2002). The challenge of preventing and treating obesity in low-income, preschool children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 156, 662-668.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). U.S. obesity trends. Centers for Disease Control and Intervention. Web.

Demattia, L. & Denney, S.L. (2008). Childhood obesity prevention: Successful community-based efforts. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 615, 83-99.

Gortmaker, S.L., Peterson, K., Wiecha, J., Sobol, A.M., Dixit, S., Fox, M.K. & Laird, N. (1999). Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 153, 409-418.

Healthy People. (2010). Healthy People. Web.

Kumanyika, S.K. (2008). Environmental influences on childhood obesity: Ethnic and cultural influences in context. Physiology & Behavior, 94, 61-70.

National Conference of State Legislatures. (2010). National Conference of State Legislatures. Web.

Pratt, M., Macera, C.A., Sallis, J.F., O’Donnell, M. & Frank, L.D. (2004). Economic incentives to promote physical activity: Application of the SLOTH model. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27, 136-145.

Sallis, J.F. & Glanz, K. (2006). The role of built environments in physical activity, eating, and obesity in childhood. The Future of Children, 16(1), 89-108.

Story, M.T., Neumark-Stzainer, D.R., Sherwood, N.E. & Holt, K. (2002). Management of child and adolescent obesity: Attitudes, barriers, skills, and training needs among health care professionals. Pediatrics, 110, 210-214.

Stunkard, A. (2008). Factors in Obesity: Current Views. Web.

Wang, Y. & Beydoun, M. (2007). The obesity epidemic in the United States—gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 29 (1), 6-28.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Business Studies
Customer 452985, November 11th, 2021
Thank you!!! I received my order in record timing.
Customer 452551, February 9th, 2021
Thank youuuu
Customer 452729, May 30th, 2021
Professions and Applied Sciences
Thanks. This helps a lot. Was a bit late but some cushion was given.
Customer 453015, February 10th, 2022
Business and administrative studies
Customer 453201, October 22nd, 2022
Business and administrative studies
excellent work
Customer 453201, November 1st, 2022
Love this writer!!! Great work
Customer 452597, April 5th, 2021
Thank you. No issues
Customer 453139, April 17th, 2022
I am beyond eager to write this review for this writer. I received a grade of "Mastered"upon first submission on this assignment. I will shout to the rooftops ENCOURAGING you to hire him. I have used other writers but NONE have delivered such awesome work as this writer and NONE of their prices can compare to his. He does not try to "break the bank" and he works hard; it shows in the final paper and the grade. He is simply,THE BEST HERE!!
Customer 452995, November 16th, 2021
thank you!
Customer 452947, October 21st, 2021
Don't really see any of sources I provided, but elsewise its great, thank you!
Customer 452697, May 8th, 2021
Looks amazing!
Customer 453283, September 2nd, 2022
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp