Health Promotion Models

Table of Contents

Nola J. Pender’s Health Promotion Model

The Health Promotion Model is a predictive framework of nursing that aims to find out the major determinants of human health-related behavior, which is supposed to be preconditioned by the patient’s individual experience and environment. Its ultimate goal is to reveal the potential for positive lifestyle changes in a patient (Alligood, 2014).

The elements that Nola J. Pender includes into her meta paradigm form the picture of an individual as a holistic human being that uses his/her inborn qualities and characteristics to adjust to the changing environment in order to achieve harmony. However, despite the fact that the person is understood as an independent, self-regulating force, the model emphasizes the significant role of the health care provider in promoting positive changes in lifestyle (Masters, 2015).

Therefore, the impact of the model on the advanced practice nurse’s practice is hard to overestimate: he/she is supposed to provide complete, comprehensible, and accurate information to the patient in order to foster self-efficacy through elevation of confidence of the patient’s own competence. The primary task of the practice is to help patients acquire enough skills, knowledge, and self-assurance to be able to care for themselves. Thus, the role of the advanced practice nurse expands from mere care provision to education of the patient based on the dynamics of his/her motivation formed by the personal experience and environment. It implies that nurses can exert an influence on patients that would last for their whole lives if the desired outcome is achieved (Alligood, 2014).

Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s Theory of Humanbecoming

Parse’s theory is a transformative approach to all levels of nursing that regards the patient as the ultimate decision-maker in what concerns the ability of his/her body to promote health. The theory relies on the three core principles: meaning (the ability to create personal meaning and set value priorities guided by life experiences), rhythmicity (co-creating rhythmical patterns with the environment), transcendence (going beyond the limits of the human potential) (Masters, 2015).

Thus, the Theory of Humanbecoming drastically transforms the advanced nursing practice and makes the profession stand out from the row of other disciplines. The theory relies upon the idea that the nurse should be able to take the patient’s perspective and learn to be with the patient not only physically but also intellectually, emotionally, and socially guiding him/her to the desired outcomes. The advanced nurse has to give up the idea of instructional nursing in order to fix the problem. The major goal is to find incongruence in the patient’s and the nurse’s health perspective and reach a compromise. It is not only about identifying what will best work for the patient but also about understanding what the patient/herself thinks would work. As a result, the health patterns are not imposed but cocreated in cooperation with the patient, which supports his/her dignity and freedom of choice (Alligood, 2014).

Pender’s Model in Carrying out the AACN Essential VIII

Carrying out AACN Essential VIII in daily practice can be assisted with the application of Pender’s Model as it allows (Alligood, 2014):

  • articulating the advantages cooperation of health care providers, patients, and their families;
  • demonstrating and delivering health information to multiple diverse audiences;
  • identifying opportunities for evidence-based clinical prevention of health conditions;
  • promoting culturally appropriate concepts of health care delivery.

Advanced nurses are involved in an interprofessional practice that presupposes cooperation with other health care providers, professionals representing community services (education, public safety, environmental health, etc.), patients, and their families. Thus, the application of the model will make it possible for them to protect the most vulnerable individuals and communities, giving them reassurance of their significance in health decisions and their impact on the functioning of the whole apparatus (Alligood, 2014).


Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theorists and their work. New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Masters, K. (2015). Role development in professional nursing practice. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

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