Edema: The Pathophysiologic Changes

The body’s fluid system operates under a delicate balance that if upset, precipitates a condition known as edema. According to Scallan and Huxley (2010), edema is a condition in which an inordinate quantity of fluid gathers in body tissue. The fluid can accumulate either inside cells (cellular edema) or inside the collagen-mucopolysaccharide matrix, which exists in the interstitial spaces (interstitial edema). In either case, the fluid causes swelling. As such, in simple terms, edema is a medical terminology used to denote swelling. The condition can affect any part of the body, but it mostly affects the legs. It results from a variety of factors such as pregnancy, underlying diseases such as heart failure or liver cirrhosis, medication, physical inactivity, burns, genes, and sitting or standing for long. These factors act in different ways to cause edema. One of the well-known ways through which they act is the elevation of capillary pressure. This essay investigates how the elevation of capillary pressure results in edema.

One of the typologies of edema, which results from increased capillary pressure, is known as hydrostatic edema (Scallan & Huxley, 2010). It occurs when excess fluid accumulates in the interstitial spaces, due to elevated hydrostatic capillary pressure. The idea here is that since the fluid that flows into the interstitial space comes from the capillaries, an increase in capillary pressure will tend to force more fluid into the interstitium. Hydrostatic edema differs from permeability edema in the sense that although both occur as a result of increased capillary pressure, the latter results from interference with the normal operation of pores in the vascular membrane. Normally, the body’s fluids flow between the intra-vascular and the extra-vascular compartments of the body. This flow takes place via pores in the vascular membrane. As such, when the physical structure of the pores is altered, it also alters the pattern of flow of the body fluids (Grossman, 2013). The consequence of this change is that it reduces the rate of filtration, which should conventionally be higher than the rate of re-absorption. It, therefore, leads to the flow of a lower than normal quantity of fluid from the capillaries into the interstitium, translating to higher pressure in the capillaries. The third typology of edema, which also results from increased capillary pressure, is known as Lymphedema. In this type of edema, increased pressure in the capillaries leads to higher than normal filtration such that the lymphatic system cannot pump away enough fluid to restore balance in the interstitium. As a result, the interstitium swells with excess fluid.

Each of the above-described examples of edema development results from some pathophysiological change in the body. Hydrostatic edema, for example, occurs when venous pressure rises above normal levels. Capillary hydrostatic pressure is an aggregate of arterial and venous pressures (Grossman, 2013). Thus, an increase in either can lead to an increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure. However, changes in venous pressure are more likely to cause a change in capillary hydrostatic pressure compared to changes in arterial pressure. Thus, hydrostatic edema almost exclusively results from increased venous pressure (Grossman, 2013). The case of permeability edema is slightly different. The pathophysiological change that occurs, in this case, is the disruption of the physical form of the pores in the vascular membrane. This interference impairs the functionality of the pores or the membrane as a whole, altering the flow of fluids between the intra-vascular and extra-vascular compartments. This change is almost similar to the change that takes place with the incidence of Lymphedema. In this form of edema, the ability of the lymphatic system to function normally is also impaired limiting its ability to pump fluids away from the interstitium. Thus, like in the case of permeability edema, there is interference with the functionality of a particular body system. They, however, differ based on the affected body systems.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that the three examples discussed above only differ insofar as their etiology is concerned. However, all of them affect the interstitium. As such, they could fundamentally be the same kind of edema, but the processes through which they come into being are different.

References

Grossman, S. (2013). Porth’s pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states. New York, NY: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Scallan, J., & Huxley, V. (2010). Capillary fluid exchange: Regulation, functions, and pathology. San Rafael, CA: Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Nursing
The writer was timely and proficient. I had to ask for a revision, but I got it back quickly with no other issues. Would use this essay writing service again
Customer 452441, November 14th, 2021
Psychology
Thank you!
Customer 452545, February 6th, 2021
Health Care
The writer did not follow my choice of topic (Food/Water Insecurity, Hunger, & Poverty), the paper was instead written about Climate Change in Africa. However, the paper was still great and informative. Thank you!
Customer 452777, January 28th, 2022
Other
Thank you , Excellent work
Customer 453201, June 2nd, 2022
Criminal Justice
This has been the greatest help while I am recovering from an illness. Thank your team so much.
Customer 452671, May 2nd, 2021
Management
It's the second time I use this service and it does not let me down. Work quality is so good for its price!
Customer 452985, December 3rd, 2021
English 101
IThank you
Customer 452631, April 6th, 2021
Psychology
Came in as promissed. Good paper.
Customer 453027, January 6th, 2022
Nursing
thank you so much
Customer 452749, June 10th, 2021
Business Management
Awesome job, Thank you
Customer 453201, June 12th, 2022
Human Resources Management (HRM)
On time and as always a great service! This semester has been very time consuming a tough for my family so this service has not only been a life saver but helped me keep up my grades! If you are in a time crunch or need help, don't hesitate! They are worth it!
Customer 453077, April 4th, 2022
Psychology
quick, fast and exact!
Customer 453027, May 24th, 2022
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
AllEscortAllEscort
Live ChatWhatsApp
AllEscort