Diabetes Prevention: Plan of Care

Introduction

Diabetes is one of the most rapidly spreading chronic conditions amongst the US and global populations. Approximately 29.1 million Americans are diagnosed with the disease, making it the seventh leading cause of death and a tremendous burden on society (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2018). As a lifestyle and dietary choices are central to diabetes prevention and management, it is critical to develop a plan of care for the use in health delivery to this population.

Nursing Diagnoses

  1. Type 1 Diabetes – autoimmune, commonly genetic disease which causes the body to stop producing insulin. The immune system attacks cells in the pancreas which inhibits insulin production. Also known as juvenile-onset diabetes, as it is commonly discovered at a young age and requires daily insulin intake (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease, 2016).
  2. Type 2 Diabetes – the most common type of diabetes, with onset at later stages of life. Due to lifestyle and physical factors, the body becomes unable to metabolize glucose in the blood. This is known as insulin resistance due to the body’s naturally produced insulin is not enough. Over time, this can lead to organ damage and co-morbidities (“Type 2 diabetes”, n.d.).
  3. Gestational diabetes – instances of hyperglycemia during pregnancy developed between 24 and 28 weeks. Commonly disappears after giving birth but is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes later on.

Assessment Data

Subjective

The patient describes their health in subjective terms, including how they are feeling, any pain or discomfort, and overall issues. Subjective aspects of hyperglycemia (and diabetes) include:

  • Temperature variations,
  • Excessive sweatiness,
  • Slurred speech,
  • Irritability,
  • Confused by surroundings
  • Blurred vision
  • Leg pain
  • Feeling of nausea

Objective

An assessment focused on diabetes should include basic vital signs, assessment of the skin, as well as checking minor vascular and neurologic functions. Vital signs should focus on checking blood pressure for hypertension. Basic measurements of weight, height, and waist should be taken to determine the Body Mass Index (BMI). Skin and neurologic examinations can determine if dryness, muscle atrophy, neurological deterioration, and temperature sensations are present or abnormal (Khardori, 2018). A fasting laboratory A1C test should be ordered to determine hyperglycemia.

Interview Results

The interview with the patient should determine qualitative factors which may be impacting their lifestyle, dietary choices, and disease management. Most patients are aware of their condition, and to some extent, how to mitigate it. However, there is inherent resistance and a lack of comprehension that diabetes remains a risk factor for lethal conditions. The interview should anticipate and determine the approach that the patient has been taking with managing the disease and which interventions would be most effective. This may include amongst other things: psychological health, medication adherence, consistent change of lifestyle habits, and other factors that may impact this condition.

Desired Outcomes

The desired outcome of the plan of care and any interventions is to achieve measurable, health, self-care behaviors in patients with diabetes. The primary objective is to achieve blood sugar control. This is done by a combination of medical and lifestyle interventions. Subsequent health benefits such as weight loss (if applicable), reduced hypertension and tachycardia, and increased strength and activity are desirable as well. The patient will demonstrate an understanding of the disease and techniques to manage blood sugar.

Evaluation Criteria

The guidelines from the American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organization recommend that adults with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 are evaluated for type 2 diabetes (Tan, Poiello, & Woodward, 2014). Other risk factors should be considered as well. Practically every organization suggests evaluation if a first-degree relative has been diagnosed with diabetes. Furthermore, vital signs criteria such as hypertension of 140/90 mmHg, HDL cholesterol <35 mg/dl or triglyceride levels of >250 mg/dl also warrant diabetes screening.

Actions and Interventions

Diabetic patients require complex care and multifaceted interventions. Nurses can take action on a direct and indirect level. However, research shows that pragmatic interventions produce the best outcomes and the effect is maximized by guideline adherence. The interventions can be supported by family and caregivers as well, by adopting certain lifestyle habits to encourage the patient. Families should learn about the nature of diabetes and aid their loved ones in maintaining a strong discipline and adherence to lifestyle and medication. The following are suggested interventions for diabetes.

  1. Blood sugar monitoring – the patient is encouraged to measure and record daily fasting blood sugar to reach an optimal range established by a physician.
  2. Insulin administration – the patient should be taught the fundamentals of insulin injection and how and when to administer it in accordance with guidelines and physician requirements.
  3. Medication adherence – the patient should strive to take all medications as prescribed.
  4. Implement a physical activity and dietary plan. The patient should attempt to perform at least 30 minutes of vigorous activity per day. Additional light physical activity such as walking or stretching is encouraged. The patient should be educated about the basics of nutrition and how it affects blood sugar levels. It is encouraged for the patient to maintain the diet and upkeep a food log.

Evaluation of Patient Outcomes

The patient should come in for follow-up appointments after the intervention. Rapid-cycle improvements are implemented and tested in the period of three months. Long-term observation can be done for eight months. The recommended treatment goals are as follows:

  1. Blood pressure – <130/80 mmHg,
  2. A1C% – <7.0,
  3. Total cholesterol – <200 mg/dl,
  4. Triglycerides – <150 mg/dl (Oxendine, Meyer, Reid, Adams, & Sabol, 2014).

References

Khardori, R. (2018). Web.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease. (2016). Web.

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2018). Web.

Oxendine, V., Meyer, A., Reid, P. V., Adams, A., & Sabol, V. (2014). Clinical Diabetes: A Publication of the American Diabetes Association, 32(3), 113-120. Web.

Tan, E., Polello, J., & Woodard, L. J. (2014). Clinical Diabetes : A Publication of the American Diabetes Association, 32(3), 133-139. Web.

(n.d.). Web.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Psychology
Received before the deadline. Great job!
Customer 453027, January 15th, 2022
Health Care
awesome work
Customer 452777, October 14th, 2021
Human Resources Management (HRM)
Very well written and very impressed with this service!
Customer 453077, February 16th, 2022
Business Studies
Thank you so much! I had to take my dog to the ER and had no time for the assignment. I really appreciate your help! I can't thank you enough! I really appreciate the work and integrity put into it. Thank you for taking it seriously and not bullshiting the paper.
Customer 452815, July 26th, 2021
Management
Thank you!!! I received my order in record timing.
Customer 452551, February 9th, 2021
Nursing
thank you so much
Customer 452749, June 10th, 2021
Classic English Literature
It was my first time using such a service. Essay was good and nicely formatted.
Customer 452441, February 16th, 2022
Nursing
Paper much better compared to the one prior revision request. References need to be no more than the past 5 years.
Customer 452547, July 20th, 2021
Other
I am beyond eager to write this review for this writer. I received a grade of "Mastered"upon first submission on this assignment. I will shout to the rooftops ENCOURAGING you to hire him. I have used other writers but NONE have delivered such awesome work as this writer and NONE of their prices can compare to his. He does not try to "break the bank" and he works hard; it shows in the final paper and the grade. He is simply,THE BEST HERE!!
Customer 452995, November 16th, 2021
Professions and Applied Sciences
Thanks. This helps a lot. Was a bit late but some cushion was given.
Customer 453015, February 10th, 2022
Management
It was gotten well after time I needed to make needed additions, but it is something that did help me. I could not get the concept of ho to start such a project but now reading this, I was over thinking the project it seems.
Customer 452801, July 19th, 2021
Economics
Nice work
Customer 453185, May 21st, 2022
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp