Assessing Juveniles for Psychopathy or Conduct Disorder

Purpose statement

The research is aimed at examining the U-CARE program and its efficiency in the development of physical functioning preservation. It is expected that a careful study of the program and its benefits will further allow its implementation.

Problem statement

According to the researchers, the older patients sector is one of the most problematic in primary care. The relevant phenomenon might be explained by the fact that the number of elderly clients constantly increases. The authors believe that an innovative program is required to increase the service’s efficiency (Bleijenberg, ten Dam, Drubbel, Numans, de Vit, & Schuurmans, 2013).

Literature Review

The researchers refer to a variety of scientific reports that describe similar types of programs. Thus, they mention some complex interventions increasing the length and the safety of the elderly’s life, multidimensional home visits of preventative nature. In the meantime, it is claimed that scientific literature does not have a common opinion regarding the most efficacious components of a complex intervention.

Framework or Theoretical Perspective

To work out the program, the researchers employed the framework offered by the British Medical Research Council (Bleijenberg et al., 2013). The relevant framework provides a guideline for the development and assessment of an intervention program. The guiding elements were retrieved from experts’ opinions. The research findings and the observations it contains are supposed to constitute a consistent theoretical base that can be used by other researchers.

Research questions and hypotheses

The relevant research does not advance any hypothesis that needs testing. The lack of research hypothesis and questions is determined by the targeted aim. In other words, the paper is aimed at elucidating the development of a program rather than challenging its efficiency.

Variables (dependent & independent)

Demographic variables

The researchers did not employ any methods that would require testing the variables factor. However, in the course of the study, they employed the GFI questionnaire that measured such variables as psychological, cognitive, social, and physical domains. Furthermore, they used an Intermed questionnaire that measured another series of variables: biological and experience dimensions. Finally, they carried out a study to assess such variables as falls’ frequency and urinary incontinence. The evaluation of the described factors helped the researchers focus on the most critical aspects while developing their program.


Appropriateness of Design

The researchers employed a method called “Framework for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Intervention” that provided a detailed step-by-step description of program development. The relevant strategy implied a series of stages: development, managing, assessing, and implementing. The applied method is scientifically grounded and recommended by the Medical Research Council. It can be considered appropriate for the research design as it provides the most explicit guideline for the program’s development.

The validity of the research

The research’s validity is assured by the scientific reasoning of the described interventions; the authors refer to authoritative sources and apply the methods approved by the Medical Research Council.

Efficacy of the study

Were questions resolved

The study fulfills its principal aim which resides in providing a detailed description of the program’s development. It also offers useful guidelines for those who would like to implement the offered intervention. In the course of the study, they answered some critical questions regarding the aspects that are most significant for a program’s development.

Legal & Ethical issues

Human subject protection


The study does not elucidate any ethical aspects related to the relevant research. In the meantime, it is critical to note that the researchers involved independent elderly patients in evaluating the offered program until it received the final approval. All the surveys carried out in the course of the study were legally permitted.

Cultural aspects

The study has some critical cultural implications. Thus, the described program is, likewise, focused on the improvement of the general nursing culture. Nurses are provided with some recommendations regarding their communication with elderly clients.


The sample group was represented by elderly people from sixty years old and above. The members of the sample group were supposed to meet one of the set criteria: multimorbidity, polypharmacy, primary care’s consultation gap.

Describe procedures

The research consists of the development stage, literature review, guidelines review, validity assessment, and feasibility test.

Describe results

The researchers conclude that the MRC strategy is currently the most relevant framework for program development. Thus, U-CARE worked out by its guideline is likely to prove its efficiency and become a successful innovative project in terms of primary care for elderly patients.

How results of the research may impact future nursing practice

In case the offered program shows its efficiency, it might be widely applied to improve the quality of primary services for elderly people.

Applies research to student’s nursing practice

The relevant research provides a useful guideline for medical students. The latter might apply the described framework to develop their programs.

Reference List

Bleijenberg, N., ten Dam, V., Drubbel, I., Numans, M., de Vit, N.J., & Schuurmans, M.J. (2013). Development of a Proactive Care Program (U-CARE) to Preserve Physical Functioning of Frail Older People in Primary Care. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 45(3), 230-237.

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