Cancer can be defined as a condition in which the body cells experience abnormal growth. Research has shown that there are about 100 varieties of the disease, and each variation is categorized according to the kind of cell it affects. Cancer injures the body when the cells destroyed by the disease begin to multiply uncontrollably to form tumors. However, leukemia is an exception to this concept because no inflammations are formed. Cancer inhibits the functioning of blood cells due to the rapid multiplication of abnormal cells. Tumors have been known to enlarge and disrupt normal body functions. Some of the areas which are affected by cancer include the nervous, digestive, and circulatory systems. Cancerous cells are known to release harmful toxic substances, which distort the normal functioning of the body. There are two types of cancer, which are malignant and benign tumors. The former refers to swellings that are cancerous while the latter refers to those which are non-cancerous. Benign tumors are known to grow at a relatively slow pace. There is no evidence to suggest that they have the capability to spread to other parts of the body. On the other hand, malignant tumors have the ability to grow very fast, penetrate, and destroy normal body tissues that are close. They also have the capacity to spread all over the body.
Cancer cells are also subdivided into primary and secondary tumors. The primary tumors refer to those swellings which develop at the initial stage. They are abnormal cells, which are spread throughout the body from the original site. These cells later develop other swellings which are known as secondary tumors. These cancerous cells usually spread in the body through the circulatory system. There is no single factor identified as the agent that causes cancer. Scientists argue that there is a multiplicity of factors that lead to the development of the disease. Some of them include environmental, genetic, and personal traits of the patient.
The diagnosis, management, and prognosis procedures of the disease are different in children compared to adults. Research indicates that the survival rate in adult and childhood cancers is estimated at 60% and 75% respectively. The variance is attributed to the rate of responsiveness to treatment observed in cases affecting children. The bodies of young children have been discovered to be tolerant to aggressive therapy regimes. Cancer in young individuals usually begins from stem cells. These are ordinary tissues with the capacity of manufacturing other forms of organisms required by the body. On the other hand, in adults, the disease attacks the epithelial cells found along the cavities of the human body. The major cause of cancer in adults is environmental factors. Individuals who contract cancer are thought to be exposed to certain risk factors, some of which include lifestyle, genetics, exposure to viruses, and environmental factors.
There are various forms of treatment that are used to manage the symptoms and effects of cancer. Some of these approaches include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and hyperthermia among others. Surgery is mainly used in the diagnosis of the disease, management, and occasionally as a preventive measure in some cases. Most individuals suffering from this condition are scheduled for surgical procedures. Medical scholars argue that surgery presents the best opportunity for treatment for individuals suffering from cancer, particularly in situations where the cancer is discovered early enough before it spreads to other parts of the body. Most individuals who have healed from cancer have had surgical procedures performed.