Adult Psychiatry: Schizophrenia in Quadruplets

The case of Genain quadruplets, which is described by Perese (2012), can be used to demonstrate the fact that genetic and nongenetic as well as prenatal and postnatal influences tend to form complex and unique combinations, which define human development.

Four Genain quadruplets developed schizophrenia, but the course of the disease was different for each of them. A history of psychological issues could be found in the genealogy of their father, which implies that their schizophrenia is likely to have been defined by the genetic predisposition. Genes can be regarded as a matrix or template for a person’s development; in particular, they exert varied influence during the prenatal stage on different brain areas, and they can be responsible for schizophrenia predisposition (Perese, 2012, p. 80). The predisposition was the same for the girls since they were monozygotic quadruplets. Moreover, other prenatal factors, for example, the diet of the mother of the girls, which could have an impact on their development (Saugstad, 2004), were also the same for all the quadruplets. However, the courses of schizophrenia and its manifestations were very different for the girls, which suggests that the genes are not the only influence of importance. For example, while all the girls had low birth weight, Nora was almost twice as big as Hester. Coincidentally, Nora was also the last to develop schizophrenia, while Hester was the first to exhibit issues. In fact, the girls with greater birth weight fell ill later than the girls with lower birth weight, which allows suggesting a connection between the two factors.

Apart from the low birth weight, it is noteworthy that the parental attitudes that the girls were subjected to were far from healthy: they had a domineering and abusive father who was reported to be addicted to alcohol, and their mother would not recognize them as individuals. It was also established that the girls were restricted from socializing by their parents. All these factors could contribute to the development of the girls’ diseases as postnatal external influences (Perese, 2012). From the case materials, it is not clear whether the girls were exposed to these factors to a similar extent.

To sum up, even though the girls were identical quadruplets, the specifics of their disease development was also influenced by a number of other factors. In fact, the events that are mentioned in the case might not be exhaustive, and other experiences of the girls that were not known to the observers might have had an impact as well.

As a psychiatrist, I am naturally interested in the topics discussed by Esch and Stefano (2010) and Saugstad (2004). Also, both articles are of importance from the point of view of the integrative, holistic approach: the former considers stress and its regulation, and the latter investigates the way human development is affected by diet. The articles are united by the neurobiological perspective, but they have different topics, which makes it difficult to establish which one of them is more useful. However, I suppose that the former article is of greater consequence since it is more recent. Moreover, it is also of greater interest to me as a professional due to its value for the practice of stress management. Esch and Stefano (2010) discuss the biology of stress management, analyzing stress coping techniques from the point of view of the biological effects that they have. The authors especially highlight the fact that the human body has a potential for stress regulation. The article is most informative and insightful, and it can be used to guide the stress management element of holistic and integrative nursing practice.


Esch, T., & Stefano, G. B. (2010). The neurobiology of stress management. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 31(1), 19-39.

Perese, E. (2012). Psychiatric advanced practice nursing. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Co.

Saugstad, L. F. (2004). From superior adaptation and function to brain dysfunction – The neglect of epigenetic factors. Nutritional Health, 18(1), 3-27.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Online Academic Experts
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Received before the deadline. Great job!
Customer 453027, January 15th, 2022
It was gotten well after time I needed to make needed additions, but it is something that did help me. I could not get the concept of ho to start such a project but now reading this, I was over thinking the project it seems.
Customer 452801, July 19th, 2021
Thank you. No issues
Customer 453139, April 17th, 2022
Customer 453057, May 23rd, 2022
It was a very long paper, but she followed all the instructions, and she even finished the paper 5 days before the due date. Will write an essay with her again, thanks!
Customer 452967, November 27th, 2021
Criminal Justice
This has been the greatest help while I am recovering from an illness. Thank your team so much.
Customer 452671, May 2nd, 2021
Usually, references need to be within the past 5 years. Thank you :)
Customer 452547, July 16th, 2021
Human Resources Management (HRM)
Very well written and very impressed with this service!
Customer 453077, February 16th, 2022
English 101
IThank you
Customer 452631, April 6th, 2021
Customer 452591, March 18th, 2021
Criminal Justice
The paper was not accused of plagiarism and was written very well. I will let you know the grade once it is graded. Thank you
Customer 452671, April 26th, 2021
Impressive writing
Customer 452547, February 6th, 2021
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Live ChatWhatsApp