The 42 years old patient presents acute bacterial prostatitis symptoms because he reports dysuria, pain in the lower back, and urinary retention. First and foremost, the digital rectal exam (DRE) shows signs of inflammation, such as redness, tenderness, and the patient reports feeling pain and a loss of function, such as inability to urinate (Hinckle & Cheever, 2018). Due to the fact that this patient reports symptoms consistent with inflammation, and the examination confirms these findings, an urine analysis may be conducted. Urine analysis allows determining the bacteria that caused acute prostatitis and its sensitivity to antibiotics (Hinckle & Cheever, 2018). In this case, bacteria caused inflammation after entering the patient’s prostate, and treatment with antibiotics should help address these symptoms.
The elements that are factors in the analysis, apart from the symptoms, include the patient’s medical history. According to Coker and Dierfeltd (2016), the condition is a result of an “ascending urethral infection or intraprostatic reflux and is facilitated by numerous risk factors” (114). Hence, this patient’s previous medical history, such as urethral catheterization or biopsy, should be considered a risk factor. Moreover, upon examination, it is vital to evaluate whether this patient did not develop sepsis. Also, the medical professional should assess the risk of the patient transmitting this infection.
There are several implications for the patient’s health, in this case. Firstly, although this is a case of acute prostatitis, it is vital to treat the infection properly to ensure that it does not become the patient’s chronic condition. According to Motrich et al. (2018), prostatitis is the most common diagnosis for men younger than 50 years, and type III prostatitis, which is chronic pelvic pain, is diagnosed in 90% of cases. The danger of prostatitis is that inflammation impairs the functioning of the organs, in this case, the prostate gland, and may affect the quality and properties of sperm. Overall, the leading risk factor that should be evaluated is the patient’s medical history and the presence of urethral examinations that might have caused the infection to enter the prostate.
Factors that impact fertility are usually connected to inflammation and its impact on the function of the prostate. For example, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) may result in male infertility because CBP may affect sperm vitality, total motility, and the percentage of progressively motile sperm (Motrich et al., 2018). CBT is a urinary tract infection caused by bacteria. Moreover, Motrich et al. (2018) state that “male fertility depends intrinsically on the content of prostatic fluid factors” (p. 1). Local inflammation caused by acute prostatitis may impair the function of the male accessory gland since it is a common consequence of inflammation to have redness, heat, swelling, feel pain, and experience a loss of function.
Inflammation markers rise in STD/PID because these conditions are typically caused by bacteria, parasites, or a virus that invades a person’s body. The immune system uses inflammation to mitigate the harm from these irritants.
Inflammation is a response mechanism of one’s body launched to combat different dysfunctions, such as trauma or infection. Inflammation is marked by a release of specific proteins into one’s blood (Hinckle & Cheever, 2018). With this response, inflammatory mediators blood vessels, allowing more blood to flow to the infected area. Hence, one can see the rise of the acute phase proteins or inflammation markers because this indicates that an irritant has entered a person’s body and the immune system responded.
Prostatitis is a common disease among males, typically classified into three stages: acute, CBP, and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Prostatitis and infections happen because of bacteria, which can travel to the prostate through a person’s blood. Infections can be caused by other organisms as well, for example, viruses, parasites, or fungi. As was previously mentioned, this causes an immune system response that targets these irritants. When an infection spreads from one organ to the entire body, this is called a systemic reaction, which is caused by the spread of the irritant from one part of the body to others.
Splenectomy is recommended upon diagnosing immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) because this condition causes the immune system to mislabel platelets as potentially harmful for the organism. Platelets are responsible for stopping bleedings, and therefore a low number of them can be potentially dangerous. As a result, the immune system causes the destruction of a large number of platelets, and because this process is facilitated through the spleen, a splenectomy can help preserve platelets. However, before splenectomy, a healthcare professional may recommend other forms of treatment.
Anemia is diagnosed when a person does not have a sufficient number of red blood cells. However, the condition can be a result of different factors. As a result, the body of a person does not receive enough oxygen, causing symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and some others (Hinckle & Cheever, 2018). There are different types of anemia, for example, macrocytic anemia is when the red blood cells lack hemoglobin causing these cells to be larger in size. Next, macrocytic anemia is diagnosed if red blood cells are large in size, which means that they do not have enough hemoglobin.
Coker, T., & Dierfeldt, D. (2016). Acute bacterial prostatitis: Diagnosis and management. American Family Physician, 93(2), 114-120.
Hinckle, J. & Cheever, K. (2018). Brunner and Suddarth’s textbook of medical-surgical nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Motrich, R. D., Salazar, F. C., Breser, M. L., Mackern‐Oberti, J. P., Godoy, G. J., Olivera, C., Paira, D. A., & Rivero, V. E. (2018). Implications of prostate inflammation on male fertility. Andrologia, 50, e13093.