About Diabetes Treatment

Table of Contents


Diabetes mellitus (type 2) is a common health issue that affects thousands of people. Although the disease has been in researchers’ lens for decades, various gaps exist, which is specifically true for treatment development. New strategies to provide care to diabetes patients are being introduced and assessed in the clinical setting. This brief literature synthesis dwells upon the most recent findings regarding effective type 2 diabetes treatment strategies with the focus on patient engagement that has proved to be a promising model.

Risk Factors Contributing to Negative Patient Outcomes

Research concerning treatment strategies is often linked to the exploration of diverse factors that lead to adverse patient outcomes. Cardiovascular disorders considerably increase the risk of death among patients with diabetes (Hoi & Suissa, 2016). Hoi and Suissa (2016) note that clinical protocols are insufficient to improve patient outcomes. Multicomponent strategies are regarded as a potential solution to the existing issues. Capoccia, Odegard, and Letassy (2015) also find clinical guidelines ineffective and concentrate on nonadherence that is one of the most significant risk factors leading to health deterioration. Some of the major reasons for nonadherence include poor trust and patients’ depression, so the integration of multiple segments improving collaboration between healthcare staff and patients is necessary.

Stakeholders’ Insights

As seen by healthcare providers, the lack of individualized care and ineffectiveness of clinical guidelines is associated with negative outcomes in patients diagnosed with diabetes type 2 (Rushforth, McCrorie, Glidewell, Midgley, & Foy, 2016). The use of a more comprehensive approach to care is expected to improve patient outcomes. Patients also pay attention to the quality of communication between them and healthcare professionals (Peimani, Nasli, & Sadeghi, 2018). Both studies support the idea of the relevance of patient engagement for improved care as healthcare practitioners and patients find this method effective.

Multicomponent Treatment Strategies

As mentioned above, multicomponent strategies are gaining momentum due to their positive effect on patient outcomes. Rankin et al. (2018) concluded that pharmaceutical treatment with no attention to other aspects of care was ineffective due to the multi causality of the health issues people had. For instance, self-management education involving family members has proved to improve the psychological and behavioral aspects of patients with diabetes mellitus (Pamungkas, Chamronsawasdi, & Vatanasomboon, 2017). Another study examining the impact of family-based interventions on glycemic control found the positive effect of the provided treatment (Feldman et al., 2018). These studies show the relevance of comprehensive treatment efforts that address clinical, psychological, and social aspects.


Engagement is regarded as one of the important elements of treatment that has a positive impact on patient outcomes. Teach back strategy that involved patients’ enhanced engagement resulted in improved adherence, self-care, self-efficacy, as well as reduced hospital admissions (Ha Dinh, Bonner, Clark, Ramsbotham, & Hines, 2016). Sharma and Grumbach (2017) also find engagement essential for care and state that it leads to enhanced adherence and appropriate relationships between patients and healthcare staff. Bombard et al. (2018) emphasized that engagement contributed to the development of effective communication patterns, and increased patients’ self-esteem and independence.


To sum up, current research suggests the relevance of multicomponent treatment strategies that involve patient engagement. The major outcomes of the use of such methods include improved communication, enhanced adherence, increased self-esteem, and better patient outcomes. It is important to continue the inquiry into the peculiarities of the integration of engagement inpatient care to develop effective strategies and improve provided healthcare services.


Bombard, Y., Baker, G. R., Orlando, E., Fancott, C., Bhatia, P., Casalino, S.,… Pomey, M. P. (2018). Engaging patients to improve quality of care: A systematic review. Implementation Science, 13(98), 15-22.

Capoccia, K., Odegard, P. S., & Letassy, N. (2015). Medication adherence with diabetes medication: A Systematic review of the literature. The Diabetes Educator, 42(1), 34-71.

Feldman, M. A., Anderson, L. M., Shapiro, J. B., Jedraszko, A. M., Evans, M., Weil, L. E. G.,… Weissberg, J. (2018). Family-based interventions targeting improvements in health and family outcomes of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A systematic review. Current Diabetes Report, 18(3), 15-22.

Ha Dinh, T. T., Bonner, A., Clark, R., Ramsbotham, J., & Hines, S. (2016). The effectiveness of the teach-back method on adherence and self-management in health education for people with chronic disease: A systematic review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 14(1), 210-247.

Hoi, O., & Suissa, S. (2016). Identifying causes for excess mortality in patients with diabetes: Closer but not there yet. American Diabetes Association, 39(11), 1851-1853.

Pamungkas, R. A., Chamronsawasdi, k., & Vatanasomboon, P. (2017). A systematic review: Family support integrated with diabetes self-management among uncontrolled type II diabetes mellitus patients. Behavioral Sciences, 7(3), 62-68.

Peimani, M., Nasli, E., & Sadeghi, R. (2018). Patients’ perceptions of patient–provider communication and diabetes care: A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Chronic Illness, 16(1), 3-22.

Rankin, A., Cadogan, C. A., Patterson, S. M., Kerse, N., Cradwell, C. R., Bradley, M. C., & Hughes, C. (2018). Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy for older people. Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews, 9(9) 1-185.

Rushforth, B., McCrorie, C., Glidewell, L., Midgley, E., & Foy, R. (2016). Barriers to effective management of type 2 diabetes in primary care: Qualitative systematic review. British Journal of General Medicine, 66(643), 114-127.

Sharma, A., & Grumbach, K. (2017). Engaging patients in primary care practice transformation: Theory, evidence and practice. Family Practice, 34(3), 262-267.

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