Cultural Group: Native Americans
- Descendants of Paleo-Indians (Lithic stage);
- Cultural exchange with European travelers;
- Large tribes with unique culture;
- Deadly diseases due to colonization;
- Native Americans were migrating peoples.
- Wise use of natural resources;
- With respect to life experience (elderly);
- All-natural objects are sacred;
- The importance of generosity and honesty;
- Reduce the exploitation of nature.
- Many communicate in English freely;
- Speak almost 200 indigenous languages;
- Navajo language – the most widespread;
- Language preservation efforts are taken;
- Do not have one protolanguage (Kinsey & Reed, 2015).
- Colorful blankets and weapons decoration;
- Nature motifs and textile art;
- Traditional baskets made of grass;
- Beading is still extremely popular;
- Have numerous artistic storytelling traditions.
- Respect one’s clan and leaders;
- Traditional gender roles are emphasized;
- Subordination based on age differences;
- Hierarchical structures in the social organization;
- Respect the bodily integrity of others (Kinsey & Reed, 2015).
- Religious practices along with learning;
- Live in urban and rural areas;
- Emphasis on dignity, not wealth;
- Have many official tribal governments;
- Battle numerous stereotypes and myths.
- The sanctity of familial networks;
- The importance of family support;
- Use modern means of communication;
- Spiritual rituals (healing practices, festivals);
- Annual gatherings of large tribes.
- The assimilation degrees greatly vary;
- The majority live in urban areas;
- Underrepresented in business and sports;
- Many reservations across the USA;
- Still respect traditional art, beliefs.
- Value family support in treatment;
- Are sensitive to medical interactions;
- Often underutilize modern healthcare resources;
- High prevalence of pernicious habits (Cobb, Espey, & King, 2014);
- Use both traditional and alternative treatment.
Socio-Cultural Group: Mexican Heritage
- Partial Mexican annexation (the 1840s);
- The 1920s – mass immigration to the U.S.;
- Organized many movements against racism;
- >10% of the U.S. population;
- Were discriminated against legally and economically (Davis, Carlo, & Knight, 2015).
- Feel obliged to their families;
- Value unity and mutual help;
- Behavior: emotional intelligence and sincerity (Davis et al., 2015);
- Trust-based relationships are important;
- Great differences in religious views.
- High degrees of linguistic diversity;
- Mexicans speak various second languages;
- The first language is Spanish;
- Recognize many languages (Nahuatl, etc.);
- Mexican Americans demonstrate linguistic assimilation.
- Traditional poetry and music (Mariachi);
- Handcraft (vases and ceramic pots);
- Clothing items and wood crafts;
- “Artesanía” elements in modern art;
- Mat-making and weaved bags.
- Often support traditional gender roles;
- Regular family gatherings, family dinners;
- Older adults’ opinions are respected;
- Family issues outweigh business problems;
- Mutual respect and conflict avoidance.
- Respect traditional culture and art;
- Traditional celebrations, festivals, and rituals;
- Business customs (the length of meetings);
- I prefer family weekends to individual activities;
- Religious diversity in everyday life.
- The roles are clearly distributed;
- Hierarchies in less assimilated families;
- Traditional ceremonies or Christian rituals;
- Annual All Saints Day celebrations;
- Hosting parties with traditional food.
- Mexican Americans are usually well-assimilated;
- Religious assimilation – popular Christian traditions;
- Earn university degrees despite discrimination;
- Have many communities across the U.S.;
- May take well and low-paid jobs.
- Traditional gender roles – women as carers;
- Nutrition – may follow unhealthy diets;
- Underutilize mental healthcare services (Gonzalez, Applewhite, & Barrera, 2015);
- Family support to ill relatives;
- Significant risk factors for obesity (Nam, Al Snih, & Markides, 2017).
Common and Different Characteristics
- Common: family unity and support;
- Common: female/male gender roles;
- Common: take culture preservation efforts;
- Differences: the degree of assimilation;
- Differences: the popularity of traditional treatments.
- Both: engage families in decision-making;
- M: consider religious beliefs before contacts;
- M: focus on nutrition consultations;
- NA: consider physical intimacy rules (direct eye contact, etc.);
- NA: consider accessories’ religious meaning.
Cobb, N., Espey, D., & King, J. (2014). Health behaviors and risk factors among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 2000–2010. American Journal of Public Health, 104(S3), S481-S489.
Davis, A. N., Carlo, G., & Knight, G. P. (2015). Perceived maternal parenting styles, cultural values, and prosocial tendencies among Mexican American youth. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 176(4), 235-252.
Gonzalez, J. M., Applewhite, S. R., & Barrera, I. (2015). Older Mexican Americans: Pathways to mental health service use. Social Work in Mental Health, 13(4), 390-414.
Kinsey, K., & Reed, P. G. (2015). Linking Native American tribal policy to practice in mental health care. Nursing Science Quarterly, 28(1), 82-87.
Nam, S., Al Snih, S., & Markides, K. (2017). The effects of chronic medical conditions and obesity on self-reported disability in older Mexican Americans. Texas Public Health Journal, 69(3), 12-15.